Latin Trimester II Review


Chapter 64

Adjectives with the Dative- Certain adjectives that can be completed by a noun in the Dative


  1. Forum est locus idoneus orationibus habendis- The Forum is a suitable place for delivering speeches

There are also several adjectives that could be use with the Dative in situations like this.

  • Amicus, -a, -um, friendly(to)
  • Aptus, -a, -um, fit(for), suitable(for)
  • Carus, -a, -um, dear(to)

The Passive Periphrastic (Gerundive of Obligation)

Epistula eat conficienda, the letter must be finished- Conficienda, when found with the form of esse, in this situation est, expresses necessity or obligation, must


  • Semper aliqui anquirendi sunt quos diligamus- Some(people) must always be sought out whom we may hold dear

The gerundive plus a form of esse, provided or understood, is translated must be, should be, has to be. This use is known as the passive periphrastic or the gerundive obligation.


  • Tense of the verb esse may be used
  • Amici sunt diligendi. Friends have to be cherished.
  • Amici erant diligendi. Friends had to be cherished.
  • Amici erant diligendi. Friends will have to be cherished.

When an intransitive verb appears in the passive periphrastic, the gerundive is used impersonally, has it as the subject. For better English, transform the passive voice to the active.


  • Domum nobis redeundum est. We must return home, literally, It must be returned home by us.

Dative of Agent- In the passive periphrastic, the person who must perform the obligation expressed verb in the verb is found in dative case, a use known as the dative of Agent. It serves the same the same function as the ablative of agent (a/ab + abl) with others passive forms of the verb.


  • Liber Ciceroni scribendus est (dative of agent)- The book has to be written by Cicero./ Cicero has to write the book.
  • Liber a Cicerone scriptus est. (ablative of agent)- The book has been written by Cierco.
  • Hic liber discipulis legendus erit. This book will have to be read by the students.

Chapter 65

Parallel Structure- Favorite device of Cicero- This is the balance of two or more words, phrases, or clauses in the same sentence to indicate that they have the same levels of importance


  • In lines 11-12 and 13-15 it shows Cicero's balance of his description of the traveling parties of Clodius and Milo.

Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives- We have seen several pronouns and adjectives related to the interrogative pronoun quis and the relative pronoun qui. These are known as indefinite, because they designate some person or thing without specifying which one.


  • Titus noster aliquid mali accepit. Our Titus experienced something bad.
  • Catilina...coniuravit cum quibusdam claris viris. Catiline… formed a conspiracy with certain eminent men.

In the first example, aliquid is an indefinite pronoun, in the second, quibusdam, is an indefinite adjective. Note how aliquid is related to quis and quibusdam to quis or qui. Note also that the meaning of quidam is less vague, than that of aliquis, writers use quidam when they know the identities of the people involved but may not wish to identify or mention them.

Examples with Pronoun

  • Servus aliquid portat. The slave is carrying something.
  • Existimo quosdam bonos natura esse. I think that certain people are naturally good.
  • Quisque se optimum esse existimat. Each one thinks that he is the best.

Examples with Adjectives

  • Servus aliquas epistulas portat. The slave is carrying some letters.
  • Quidam miles fortiter pugnavit. A certain soldier fought bravely.
  • Dominus cuique servo lauded dedit. The master gave each slave praise.
These are examples of indefinite pronouns and adjectives

1. Forms of quidam are commonly found with the preposition ex and meaning some of when a partitive idea is expressed, quidam ex miltibus, some of the soldiers

2. The Romans used forms of quis, instead of aliquis or quisquam, after si, inside, num and ne. The forms of quis are declined like aliquis without the prefix Ali-. For example, Si quis in Forum ierit, multos homines videbit, if anyone goes into the Forum, he/she will see many people

3. Quisquam is usually found in a negative context, that is the sentence contains a word such as non, nec, numquam, or negare.

4. Quicquam is used as an alternative to quidquam, as the assimilation of the sound d to the sound q makes quicquam easier to pronounce.

5. Avoid confusing the conjunction quamquam, although, and the adverbs quidem, indeed, and quoque, also, with the forms of the indefinite pronoun/adjective

Chapter 66

Fear clauses- Ut and ne introduce a fear clause


  • Vereor ut Dolabella ipse satis nobis prodesse possit. I fear that Dolabella himself cannot be of sufficient help to us.
  • Metuo ne iam intercludamur. I am afraid that we may be cut off already.
  • Caesar consensum Gallorum timuit. Caesar feared the union of the Gauls.

A fear clause is a noun clause expressing the object of fear. A word expressing fear or danger introduces the clause, which is completed by a verb in the subjunctive(usually the present of imperfect tense). The word anticipates the clause is usually a verb, but may be a noun such as metus or timor. Note that in fear clauses, ut is translated that....not and ne is translated that- the opposite of their usual meanings.

Potential Subjective- When the independent subjunctive expresses an action that is possible or conceivable, it is translated as could, may, should, or would. This use of the subjunctive is known as the potential subjective.

Thus, velim is translated I would wish or I would like

In the context of Line 12, Cicero uses the subjunctive to express in a polite but firm way some possibilities that he would like his family to consider.

Interpreting ut- When ut comes after a main clause that contains a key word such tantus, talis, sic, etc., it introduces a result clause and means that, look for a subjunctive verb to complete the clause


  • Senatores quidam Caesarem adeo timebant ut Roma effugerent. Certain soldiers feared Caesar so much that they fled from Rome.

When ut follows verbs such as rogare, orare, persuadere, or imperare, it introduces an indirect command with a subjunctive verb, which we express by an infinitive in English:


  • Cierco propinquos rogat ut consilia bona caperent. Cicero is asking his relatives to make good plans.

When ut follows timere, vereri, or metuere, ut will mean that...not, introducing a fear clause with a subjunctive verb


  • Cicero verebatur ut satis civil in urbe esset. Cicero was afraid that there would not be enough food in the city.

If none of these apply, keep reading until you see the verb that completes the ut clause. If the verb introduced by ut is subjunctive, you are dealing with a purpose clause and ut means (in order) to:


  • Cicero epsitulam misit ut familiam suam adiuvaret. Cicero sent a letter (in order) to help his household.

If the verb introduced by ut is indicative, ut means when or as:

  • Cicero, ut epistulae eius demonstrant, liberos maxime amabat. Cicero, as his letters show, loved his children very much.

Deliberative questions

You met three examples of the subjunctive used in a deliberative question. In line 3, Ego quid agam? means What should I do? or What am I to do? and in line 3 persequar eum?, should I follow him? or am I to follow him?

The deliberative question is a question asked of oneself and can imply doubt, indignation, surprise, or confusion. It does not necessarily expect an answer.

Chapter 69

Cum Clauses

A cum clause with an:

indicative verb = temporal clause (when)

  • Cum es Hispania Galliaque...redii… When I returned to Rome from Spain and Gaul...

subjunctive verb = (tamen appears in main clause - although=concussive clause)

  • Cum copiae hostium essent maiores, Romani tamen eas vicerunt. Although the forces of the enemy were greater, the Romans nevertheless overcame them.

If tamen does not appear in main clause, use whichever meaning fits best with context.

  • Caesar cum loqueretur, ab inimics interfectus est. When Caesar was speaking, he was killed by his enemies.

More common meanings of cum: when/after, since/because

Chapter 72

Tricolon- A series of three phrases or clauses which are parallel in form. A tricolon usually contains an anaphora. The last word in the tricolon is commonly the most important and/or longest.

  • nec te noster amor (tenet) Does neither your love
  • nec te data dextera quondam (tenet) nor your right hand once given
  • nec (te) moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido? nor Dido about to die a cruel death hold you?

The Ending -ere

-ere is an alternate ending to -erunt in the third person plural of the perfect tense. Usually found in poetry and sometimes prose. Can be distinguished from an infinitive because an infinitive has the -ere attached to the present stem.

  • Te propter Libycae gentes Nomadumque tyranni odere… Because of you the Libyrian tribe and the kings of the Nomidians hate me…
  • Fulsere quondam candidi tibi soles… Bright suns once shone for you…
  • Regressi eum videre… Having returned he saw

Intransitive Verbs with Genitive- This is a list of special intransitive verbs that take a case other than the accusative as their object.

  • memini, meminisse, to remember
  • misereor, misereri, miseritus sum, to take pity on, feel sorry for
  • obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum, to forget
  • potior, potiri, potitus sum, to get control, get possession of (potior can take the ablative as well)

Verbs with Forms in the Perfect System Only- These verbs are only found in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses.

Perfect translated as present, pluperfect as perfect, future perfect as future.


  • odere- (they) hate
  • odi- I hate
  • meminit- he remembers
  • meminerat- he remembered

Impersonal Verbs of Feeling

Person who feels-in accusative

Cause of the feeling-in Genitive if a noun or in the infinitive if it's a verb


  • miseret, miserere, miseruit, it makes one pity, feel sorry for something
  • paenitet, paenitere, paenituit, it makes one regret something, relent of something
  • pudet, pudere, puduit, it makes one ashamed of something
  • taedet, taedere, taeduit or taesum est, it bores, makes one tired of something

Onomatopoeia- Figure of speech in which the sound of the word imitates or suggests the sound one hears


  • ulutatu - howling; cuculus - cuckoo; susurrus - murmuring

Similes in Epic Poetry- These similes are used to show the reader that there is a turning point in the story, or it shows the significance of an event.

Similes are introduced by:

  • ut, velut, sicut, tamquam, qualis, non aliter qualm

Purpose Clauses (Consolidation)- There are different ways of expressing purpose. Some are Subjunctive Clauses, Gerunds/Gerundive, Supines, and now Relative Clauses of Purpose.

Relative Clause of Purpose- introduced by a relative pronoun. Their verbs are always in the subjunctive. There should always be a verb of motion present.

  • Iūnō…Īrim dēmīsit Olympō / quae luctantem animam nexōsque resolveret artūs. Juno sent Iris down from Olympus to release the struggling soul and the bound limbs.
  • Regina militia in provinciam mittet qui incolas terreant. The queen will send soldiers into the province in order that they may frighten the inhabitants.
  • Romam veneram ubi auxilium ab amicis peterem. I had come to Rome in order that I might seek aid from friends.

Chapter 74

Hyperbaton II- The wide separation of words that belong together, most often an adjective and the noun it modifies. Usually emphasizes the words that are separated.

  • animadverti, iudices, omnem accusatoris orationem in duas divisam esse partis. Note, judges, that the entire speech of the accuser has been divided into two parts.
  • Questus eram, pharetra cum protinus ille soluta… I had complained, when forthwith he freed his quiver…
  • "Yes, a Jedi's strength flows from the Force. But beware of the dark side. Anger, fear, aggression; the dark side of the Force are they. Easily they flow,quick to join you in a fight. If once you start down the dark path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will, as it did Obi-Wan's apprentice."

Poetic Plurals- Common in Roman poetry. Some words are better translated in the singular even though they look plural.

  • ceras: wax
  • ora: mouth
  • meos amores: my lover

Historical synopses

Chapter 64: A Political Murder(Asconius)

Chapter 64 contains Asconius’ account of the murder of Clodius, so this synopsis will be told from his perspective. As the story begins, Milo is traveling to Lanuvium to appoint a chief magistrate. On his way, he was met by Clodius. Clodius traveled with 30 slaves armed with knives, in addition to a Roman knight, two Plebeians, and his family. As they went an argument began amongst some of the slaves. As Clodius looked back on the quarrel, he was struck in the shoulder by Birria with a spear. As Milo’s men attacked those of Clodius, he sent for Clodius to be killed, since he knew he was injured, no matter the consequences. He was killed and a senator, Sextus Tedius ordered for Clodius’ body to be brought to Rome. As the body entered Rome, a crowd of peasants surrounded it along with Fulvia as it came into the house. Many distinguished men were there the next day to see the dead body of Clodius. As the crowd was there a mob took the body and put it in the rostris so it could be seen in the Forum. Sextus Clodius, a rival of Milo took this body into the Senate House and burned it and also burned down the Senate House.

Clodius being dragged out of the inn

Chapter 65: A Political Murder (Cicero)

Chapter 65 tells us about the murder of Clodius by the account of Cicero, so this synopsis will be told from his perspective. As Clodius knew that Milo had to go to Rome to appoint a priest since he was the chief magistrate, he arranged an attack on Milo in front of his estate. Milo left for Rome after the senate had dismissed and he got changed and waited for his wife. Clodius was now on horseback, lightly armed without luggage. Milo however traveled with his wife in his traveling cloak with womanly slaves and bots. Milo came to Clodius’ estate and made an attack, the slaves of both parties fought and Milo’s slaves came from the rear as some thought Clodius had been killed. After this encounter, many of Milo’s slaves were killed and many returned to their homes. But it was found out that Clodius had been killed and his slaves did not shift accusation onto Milo for the murder of Clodius. At the trial, it was decided that Milo should be sent to exile in Massilia and his goods to be sold. For the jury must have thought that Milo ordered him to be killed.

Chapter 66: Eyewitness to Civil War

Chapter 66 contains four letters sent and received by Cicero during the early months of the well-known civil war between Caesar and Pompey. At the time of the first letter, Cicero is commander of Pompey’s army in Campania. In the first letter, he writes to his wife Terentia. Cicero wishes well to his wife and his daughter and in the letter he warns them and tells them what to do. He says that if Caesar comes to Rome civilly, they will be safe, but if Caesar comes in ready to plunder the city, he fears that Dolabella will be of no help and things will be bad. He says that if they can keep this place they will live in comfort, but warns her of famine in the city to come. The second letter, Cicero writes to Atticus. He says that Caesar is in power because all of the fleets in Italy are under his control and he does not know where Pompey is. He asks if he can follow Pompey, or if he should surrender to Caesar, and if he does, will it be safe and advisable to. The third letter, Pompey writes to Cicero as commander. He says that the consuls came to his army in Apulia and he asks Cicero to come to him in Brundisium so that Cicero may help Pompey in his stricken down state. The fourth and final letter is written by Caesar to Cicero. Caesar says that he has sent legions to attack Pompey and he is writing to him to thank him and he sees himself writing to Cicero more often. He expects to see Cicero in Rome so that he can use his plan, and his resources.

Chapter 69- Augustus

Chapter 69 covers the political life of Caesar Augustus through his personal autobiography, the Res Gestae Divi Augusti. This script, written upon the Ara Pacis, was written right before Augustus’s death as a means to preserve his legacy. Naturally, because it served as propaganda for the Roman State, it only preserved the things he did which benefited the state. He wrote about what he did in order to rise to power in such a way that he was seen as a protector of the state, that he was in charge so that it may see no harm. He explained that he settled the civil wars, and the honors he received thereupon. Then he showed his compassion by writing about when he gave amnesty to those he defeated in wars, and he included that he brought great peace upon Rome and the empire. Finally, he explained the public works he undertook to benefit the people of Rome. All of these accomplishments, included in the Res Gestae, contributed to the preservation of a positive legacy for Caesar Augustus.

Chapter 72- Dido and Aeneas

Aeneas speaking with Dido before his departure for Rome

This story, translated from the Aeneid, was a form of Roman Epic poetry, where Aeneas has the traits of an ideal Roman. The story begins after Aeneas was told by the God Mercury to leave Carthage to seek a new land, Rome. As he was preparing to leave, he was confronted by his wife, Dido, who was angered that he would leave her. She wondered why he would leave, and asked him to pity her and stay, and explained everything that she had done for him. He responds by denying their marriage and explaining how it was not up to him what he was to do, but he was at the mercy of the Gods. He is now fully committed to the mission he would undertake. Dido responded with a malediction towards Aeneas for betraying her after she took him in as a castaway on her shore and she gave him a portion of her kingdom. She hoped that he should find himself in trouble and call out her name, but she will not be there. At the end of the story, after Aeneas departs, Dido falls upon a pyre and kills herself.

Chapter 74- Ovid’s Metamorphoses

Midas explores his golden touch

Chapter 74 was comprised of two different stories, both from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. The first is the story of Midas. He was granted a wish by Bacchus for caring for Silenus, a friend of Bacchus. However, Midas chooses an irresponsible gift of a golden touch. Elated at first, he tests his power on everything he can, but he soon learns that he cannot eat or drink. He returned to Bacchus requesting that he revoke the power. Bacchus agrees, and tells Midas to wash himself in the river. He does so, and the power was released. Later, at the musical competition between Pan and Apollo, he foolishly disagreed with the outcome of the competition. As punishment, the God of Delos gave him the ears of an ass. He hid them from all except the slave who cut his hair, who could not keep the secret. The second story in chapter 74 was that of Daedalus and Icarus. Daedalus devised a plan to escape from Cyprus, where he was held captive. He meticulously crafted wings for him and his son Icarus to fly off the island. Before flying, he gave his son strict instructions to not fly too high nor too low, to preserve the integrity of the wings. However, Icarus was too careless and melted the wax from his wings. This story teaches the lesson of moderation, that the middle path is best.

Icarus plunges to the ocean after the Sun melted his wings

Thesis Statements

Chapter 64

Milo is guilty for the murdering of Clodius.

1) Asconius' account of Milo and Clodius on the Appian Way was written to be an accurate interpretation of the encounter. While Cicero's speech in the court trial could much more easily be changed to persuade the court in Milo's favor.

2) In Asconius' account, he describes Milo as having been accompanied by two gladiators, one of who attacked Clodius with his spear. Milo's purpose for being on the Appian Way was to appoint a priest, so gladiators should not have been necessary. Also, history shows that Milo and Clodius were political rivals.

3) Asconius describes how Clodius was followed by some thirty lightly armed slaves. He then writes, "ut illo tempore mos erat iter facientibus, gladiis cincti sequebantur." This statement shows that it was accustomed and was normal to be guarded by slaves while making a journey.

Chapter 69

Augustus' account of his achievements is not entirely accurate, but more propaganda.

1) The Res gestae divi Augusti was written as a testament to Augustus' achievements from his own perspective. He uses the first person to emphasize the accomplishments he did. This is different from Julius Caesar's third person account of his battles in Gaul. Augustus shows his authority by using the first person.

2) Augustus writes, "Duo et octoginta templa deum in urbe consul sextum et auctoritate Senatus refeci." His rebuilding of eighty-two temples to the god in the city, was done to strengthen the cult of Augustus. In Rome the consul (and emperor) was seen as a god by the people.

3) Part of Augustus' propaganda was showing his cooperation with the Senate. Along with restoring the eighty-two temples to the god, Augustus makes sure to write "et auctoritate Senatus." Using an ablative of respect, Augustus demonstrates by whose authority he could rebuilt the temples.

Chapter 72

Epic Poetry in this epic is trying to demonstrate courage to do the right thing.

1) In line 361 Aeneas says, "Italiam non sponte sequor." He says that he does not set out to Italy voluntarily. This is because Jupiter has given Aeneas the orders to go to Italy.

2) Destiny is a common theme in epic poetry. Aeneas must do what is right by leaving Dido to fulfill his destiny, given to him by Jupiter.

3) In line 318 Vergil writes, "miserere domus labentis et itsam." Dido tells Aeneas to "pity this ruined house" so that Aeneas might stay. The word house is being used as metonymy for marriage. However, it is right for Aeneas to leave since the marriage was never made official.

Grammar review by Piero Salas-Allende and John Napolitano

Historical Synopses by Kevin Manning and John McBride

Theses by Chris Mancini

Spark page formatting by John McBride

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