Adjectives with the Dative- Certain adjectives that can be completed by a noun in the Dative
- Forum est locus idoneus orationibus habendis- The Forum is a suitable place for delivering speeches
There are also several adjectives that could be use with the Dative in situations like this.
- Amicus, -a, -um, friendly(to)
- Aptus, -a, -um, fit(for), suitable(for)
- Carus, -a, -um, dear(to)
The Passive Periphrastic (Gerundive of Obligation)
Epistula eat conficienda, the letter must be finished- Conficienda, when found with the form of esse, in this situation est, expresses necessity or obligation, must
- Semper aliqui anquirendi sunt quos diligamus- Some(people) must always be sought out whom we may hold dear
The gerundive plus a form of esse, provided or understood, is translated must be, should be, has to be. This use is known as the passive periphrastic or the gerundive obligation.
- Tense of the verb esse may be used
- Amici sunt diligendi. Friends have to be cherished.
- Amici erant diligendi. Friends had to be cherished.
- Amici erant diligendi. Friends will have to be cherished.
When an intransitive verb appears in the passive periphrastic, the gerundive is used impersonally, has it as the subject. For better English, transform the passive voice to the active.
- Domum nobis redeundum est. We must return home, literally, It must be returned home by us.
Dative of Agent- In the passive periphrastic, the person who must perform the obligation expressed verb in the verb is found in dative case, a use known as the dative of Agent. It serves the same the same function as the ablative of agent (a/ab + abl) with others passive forms of the verb.
- Liber Ciceroni scribendus est (dative of agent)- The book has to be written by Cicero./ Cicero has to write the book.
- Liber a Cicerone scriptus est. (ablative of agent)- The book has been written by Cierco.
- Hic liber discipulis legendus erit. This book will have to be read by the students.
Parallel Structure- Favorite device of Cicero- This is the balance of two or more words, phrases, or clauses in the same sentence to indicate that they have the same levels of importance
- In lines 11-12 and 13-15 it shows Cicero's balance of his description of the traveling parties of Clodius and Milo.
Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives- We have seen several pronouns and adjectives related to the interrogative pronoun quis and the relative pronoun qui. These are known as indefinite, because they designate some person or thing without specifying which one.
- Titus noster aliquid mali accepit. Our Titus experienced something bad.
- Catilina...coniuravit cum quibusdam claris viris. Catiline… formed a conspiracy with certain eminent men.
In the first example, aliquid is an indefinite pronoun, in the second, quibusdam, is an indefinite adjective. Note how aliquid is related to quis and quibusdam to quis or qui. Note also that the meaning of quidam is less vague, than that of aliquis, writers use quidam when they know the identities of the people involved but may not wish to identify or mention them.
Examples with Pronoun
- Servus aliquid portat. The slave is carrying something.
- Existimo quosdam bonos natura esse. I think that certain people are naturally good.
- Quisque se optimum esse existimat. Each one thinks that he is the best.
Examples with Adjectives
- Servus aliquas epistulas portat. The slave is carrying some letters.
- Quidam miles fortiter pugnavit. A certain soldier fought bravely.
- Dominus cuique servo lauded dedit. The master gave each slave praise.
These are examples of indefinite pronouns and adjectives
1. Forms of quidam are commonly found with the preposition ex and meaning some of when a partitive idea is expressed, quidam ex miltibus, some of the soldiers
2. The Romans used forms of quis, instead of aliquis or quisquam, after si, inside, num and ne. The forms of quis are declined like aliquis without the prefix Ali-. For example, Si quis in Forum ierit, multos homines videbit, if anyone goes into the Forum, he/she will see many people
3. Quisquam is usually found in a negative context, that is the sentence contains a word such as non, nec, numquam, or negare.
4. Quicquam is used as an alternative to quidquam, as the assimilation of the sound d to the sound q makes quicquam easier to pronounce.
5. Avoid confusing the conjunction quamquam, although, and the adverbs quidem, indeed, and quoque, also, with the forms of the indefinite pronoun/adjective
Fear clauses- Ut and ne introduce a fear clause
- Vereor ut Dolabella ipse satis nobis prodesse possit. I fear that Dolabella himself cannot be of sufficient help to us.
- Metuo ne iam intercludamur. I am afraid that we may be cut off already.
- Caesar consensum Gallorum timuit. Caesar feared the union of the Gauls.
A fear clause is a noun clause expressing the object of fear. A word expressing fear or danger introduces the clause, which is completed by a verb in the subjunctive(usually the present of imperfect tense). The word anticipates the clause is usually a verb, but may be a noun such as metus or timor. Note that in fear clauses, ut is translated that....not and ne is translated that- the opposite of their usual meanings.
Potential Subjective- When the independent subjunctive expresses an action that is possible or conceivable, it is translated as could, may, should, or would. This use of the subjunctive is known as the potential subjective.
Thus, velim is translated I would wish or I would like
In the context of Line 12, Cicero uses the subjunctive to express in a polite but firm way some possibilities that he would like his family to consider.
Interpreting ut- When ut comes after a main clause that contains a key word such tantus, talis, sic, etc., it introduces a result clause and means that, look for a subjunctive verb to complete the clause
- Senatores quidam Caesarem adeo timebant ut Roma effugerent. Certain soldiers feared Caesar so much that they fled from Rome.
When ut follows verbs such as rogare, orare, persuadere, or imperare, it introduces an indirect command with a subjunctive verb, which we express by an infinitive in English:
- Cierco propinquos rogat ut consilia bona caperent. Cicero is asking his relatives to make good plans.
When ut follows timere, vereri, or metuere, ut will mean that...not, introducing a fear clause with a subjunctive verb
- Cicero verebatur ut satis civil in urbe esset. Cicero was afraid that there would not be enough food in the city.
If none of these apply, keep reading until you see the verb that completes the ut clause. If the verb introduced by ut is subjunctive, you are dealing with a purpose clause and ut means (in order) to:
- Cicero epsitulam misit ut familiam suam adiuvaret. Cicero sent a letter (in order) to help his household.
If the verb introduced by ut is indicative, ut means when or as:
- Cicero, ut epistulae eius demonstrant, liberos maxime amabat. Cicero, as his letters show, loved his children very much.
You met three examples of the subjunctive used in a deliberative question. In line 3, Ego quid agam? means What should I do? or What am I to do? and in line 3 persequar eum?, should I follow him? or am I to follow him?
The deliberative question is a question asked of oneself and can imply doubt, indignation, surprise, or confusion. It does not necessarily expect an answer.
A cum clause with an:
indicative verb = temporal clause (when)
- Cum es Hispania Galliaque...redii… When I returned to Rome from Spain and Gaul...
subjunctive verb = (tamen appears in main clause - although=concussive clause)
- Cum copiae hostium essent maiores, Romani tamen eas vicerunt. Although the forces of the enemy were greater, the Romans nevertheless overcame them.
If tamen does not appear in main clause, use whichever meaning fits best with context.
- Caesar cum loqueretur, ab inimics interfectus est. When Caesar was speaking, he was killed by his enemies.
More common meanings of cum: when/after, since/because
Tricolon- A series of three phrases or clauses which are parallel in form. A tricolon usually contains an anaphora. The last word in the tricolon is commonly the most important and/or longest.
- nec te noster amor (tenet) Does neither your love
- nec te data dextera quondam (tenet) nor your right hand once given
- nec (te) moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido? nor Dido about to die a cruel death hold you?
The Ending -ere
-ere is an alternate ending to -erunt in the third person plural of the perfect tense. Usually found in poetry and sometimes prose. Can be distinguished from an infinitive because an infinitive has the -ere attached to the present stem.
- Te propter Libycae gentes Nomadumque tyranni odere… Because of you the Libyrian tribe and the kings of the Nomidians hate me…
- Fulsere quondam candidi tibi soles… Bright suns once shone for you…
- Regressi eum videre… Having returned he saw
Intransitive Verbs with Genitive- This is a list of special intransitive verbs that take a case other than the accusative as their object.
- memini, meminisse, to remember
- misereor, misereri, miseritus sum, to take pity on, feel sorry for
- obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum, to forget
- potior, potiri, potitus sum, to get control, get possession of (potior can take the ablative as well)
Verbs with Forms in the Perfect System Only- These verbs are only found in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses.
Perfect translated as present, pluperfect as perfect, future perfect as future.
- odere- (they) hate
- odi- I hate
- meminit- he remembers
- meminerat- he remembered
Impersonal Verbs of Feeling
Person who feels-in accusative
Cause of the feeling-in Genitive if a noun or in the infinitive if it's a verb
- miseret, miserere, miseruit, it makes one pity, feel sorry for something
- paenitet, paenitere, paenituit, it makes one regret something, relent of something
- pudet, pudere, puduit, it makes one ashamed of something
- taedet, taedere, taeduit or taesum est, it bores, makes one tired of something
Onomatopoeia- Figure of speech in which the sound of the word imitates or suggests the sound one hears
- ulutatu - howling; cuculus - cuckoo; susurrus - murmuring
Similes in Epic Poetry- These similes are used to show the reader that there is a turning point in the story, or it shows the significance of an event.
Similes are introduced by:
- ut, velut, sicut, tamquam, qualis, non aliter qualm
Purpose Clauses (Consolidation)- There are different ways of expressing purpose. Some are Subjunctive Clauses, Gerunds/Gerundive, Supines, and now Relative Clauses of Purpose.
Relative Clause of Purpose- introduced by a relative pronoun. Their verbs are always in the subjunctive. There should always be a verb of motion present.
- Iūnō…Īrim dēmīsit Olympō / quae luctantem animam nexōsque resolveret artūs. Juno sent Iris down from Olympus to release the struggling soul and the bound limbs.
- Regina militia in provinciam mittet qui incolas terreant. The queen will send soldiers into the province in order that they may frighten the inhabitants.
- Romam veneram ubi auxilium ab amicis peterem. I had come to Rome in order that I might seek aid from friends.
Hyperbaton II- The wide separation of words that belong together, most often an adjective and the noun it modifies. Usually emphasizes the words that are separated.
- animadverti, iudices, omnem accusatoris orationem in duas divisam esse partis. Note, judges, that the entire speech of the accuser has been divided into two parts.
- Questus eram, pharetra cum protinus ille soluta… I had complained, when forthwith he freed his quiver…
- "Yes, a Jedi's strength flows from the Force. But beware of the dark side. Anger, fear, aggression; the dark side of the Force are they. Easily they flow,quick to join you in a fight. If once you start down the dark path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will, as it did Obi-Wan's apprentice."
Poetic Plurals- Common in Roman poetry. Some words are better translated in the singular even though they look plural.
- ceras: wax
- ora: mouth
- meos amores: my lover
Chapter 64: A Political Murder(Asconius)
Chapter 64 contains Asconius’ account of the murder of Clodius, so this synopsis will be told from his perspective. As the story begins, Milo is traveling to Lanuvium to appoint a chief magistrate. On his way, he was met by Clodius. Clodius traveled with 30 slaves armed with knives, in addition to a Roman knight, two Plebeians, and his family. As they went an argument began amongst some of the slaves. As Clodius looked back on the quarrel, he was struck in the shoulder by Birria with a spear. As Milo’s men attacked those of Clodius, he sent for Clodius to be killed, since he knew he was injured, no matter the consequences. He was killed and a senator, Sextus Tedius ordered for Clodius’ body to be brought to Rome. As the body entered Rome, a crowd of peasants surrounded it along with Fulvia as it came into the house. Many distinguished men were there the next day to see the dead body of Clodius. As the crowd was there a mob took the body and put it in the rostris so it could be seen in the Forum. Sextus Clodius, a rival of Milo took this body into the Senate House and burned it and also burned down the Senate House.