Geography/cities: Lots of geographical features impacted the Ancient Greeks in many ways. One geographic feature was the sea and all the little islands spread across the sea. The Greeks took advantage of living near a sea. They had a peninsula around them. People fished, they could trade goods, and sail across the sea. Another geographic feature were the mountains in Greece. Though the mountains didn't have fertile soil you could grow some crops due to the warm climate. They grew barley, wheat, olives, and grapes. They also raised sheep and goat. The Minoans and Mycenaean used these geographical features to their advantage. All These geographical features impacted them because they helped the people survive. The earliest cities in Greece were located at the Balkan Peninsula, Peloponnesus, Crete, and Asia Minor. The importance of their location was that they all had access to the seas which gave them certain advantages. This allowed them to do more things and travel on their boats unlike some other cities which didn't have access to the sea.
Class Divisions: In Ancient Greece, there were a lot of rights that citizens had. The idea of Greek citizenship was when the Greek government said that all citizens had rights and responsibilities. The Greeks were the first people to come up with the idea of Greek Citizenship. A citizen was a person who had rights and responsibilities in the Government. Some rights they had were: right to vote, hold office, and pass laws. The citizens gathered in an agora where they picked officials and passed laws. This made them different from other civilizations because for example: in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt people had no rights, no say in government, and no choice but to obey their rulers. This made the Greek Government better because people had more choices unlike other civilizations.
Organized Government: In Ancient Greece there were lots of types of Organized Governments and in each Government different people played different roles in them. The first type of Organized Government was Direct Democracy. Direct Democracy was when a big group of people gathered for a meeting to discuss on Government matters. The advantages of this type of Government were: Every male citizen had rights to vote on laws and policies, everyone's idea had potential, and everyone had a voice. The disadvantages of this type of government were: people got unhappy if there idea didn't work, a lot of arguing, and Majority of people ruled making it harder to make a decision. This type of Government was used by the Athens in Ancient Greece. It is also used by Switzerland. Another type of Organized government is the Representative Democracy. In a Representative Democracy not everyone gets to make laws or governmental decisions. Instead only a small group of citizens get to make laws and policies. This type of Government was better for places that had a large population. The advantages of this type of Government were: It would take less time to make decisions, everyone's idea had potential, and this was a fair type of government. The disadvantages of this type of Government were: A lot of arguing, people can get unhappy, and not everyone has an opportunity to share. This type of Government is used by USA, Canada, and more countries. Another type of Organized Government was a Tyranny. A Tyranny Government was ruled by one powerful dictator(tyrant), who seized power without legal right. The advantages of this type of Government were: No arguing, Easy to make a decision, and people did what the ruler wanted. The disadvantages of this type of Government were: fewer ideas, unfair, and not everyone involved. This Government was used by Hitler and Nazi Germany. It was also used by Joseph Stalin, the leader of Soviet Union. The fourth type of Organized Government was an Oligarchy. In an Oligarchy, only a few people had power and rights. Not everyone was aloud to decide on laws and policies. The advantages of this type of Government were: Not a lot of arguing, More ideas, and opportunity to discuss. The disadvantages of this type of Government were: Rulers may not agree, Some could be upset, and Rulers might not be wise. This type of Government was used by the Spartans in Ancient Greece. It is also used by the Russians.
Organized Government challenge: I think that representative democracy is the best type of democracy because unlike some other types of Governments this democracy was a fair type of government. All eligible citizens were allowed to vote on representatives to pass laws for them. Also this was a great type of government for large populations. Also all people's idea had potential to be used and it would take less time to make the decisions for laws and other policies.
Religion: The Greeks were Polytheistic which meant they war shipped many gods. One religious belief they had was they believed that gods and goddesses affected people's lives and shaped events. This was the reason they made so many religious buildings that were so impressive in Greece. They believed each god showed human characteristics. Some important gods they believed in were: Zeus, Athena, Apollo, Ares, Aphrodite, Poseidon, etc. Another belief they had was they believed in afterlife. They believed that when someone died they went to the gloomy underworld ruled by Hades. As a result of these Beliefs the Greeks did many rituals to keep their gods happy. Also they prayed for their gods and gave them gifts. As a result, they hoped that these gods would grant good fortune to them. Many Greek festivals were based on Gods and Goddesses.
Writing Systems: The Greek Alphabet was a way the Greeks communicated with each other. The Greeks took most of their alphabets from the Phoenician alphabet. But their alphabet was the first alphabet to have vowels. Instead of using writing for business, the Greeks used writing differently. Since the Greeks loved life and enjoyed having a good time, the earliest Greek writing was about dancing and enjoying life. The Greeks wrote all sorts of things with their alphabets. They wrote on pottery and wrote poems and stories. They even wrote offerings to gods. The Greek alphabet had 24 letters in it. Each letter stood for a different sound. The alphabet made reading and writing much easier. This is how people started writing poems and stories and a lot more. Below is a sentence written in the Greek alphabet. It says, "I like to play sports".
Art: There were many styles of Arts that were in Ancient Greece. One style of Art was Epics. Epics were long poems that told heroic deeds. The first great epics were written by the Poet Homer. Some of the stories he wrote were Iliad and the Odyssey. He usually based his stories on wars between Greece and the city Troy. The second style of Art was Myths. Myths were traditional stories about gods and heroes. Greek Myths demonstrated Greek people's religious beliefs. Another Style of Art was fables. Fables were short tales that taught a lesson. Aesop's Fables usually had animals that talked and pretended to be people. At the end of a fable there was a message or the moral. The fourth style of Art was drama. Drama was a story where actors pretended to be characters in the story. In a drama, actors spoke, showed emotion, and did the actions of the characters they were playing as. The last style of Art was structure. There were lots of structures in Ancient Greece. One was the Parthenon. It was very important to Greece since it represented the Goddess Athena. There were a lot more types of Art. All these Arts impacted the Ancient Greeks because the Arts reflected their society. Art also impacted them because they saw all the Art as an Accomplishment they achieved. Their Art represented importance and all the accomplishments. All these Greek ideas and language spread to non-Greek people of Southwest Asia. They spread because of the Hellenistic Era. The Hellenistic Era started because of Alexander the Great's conquests.