In 1960 the ANC radicalized after the Sharpeville massacre in which 69 people were killed. After Mandela was arrested for planning armed resistance against the apartheid government, the fight against apartheid continued with other ANC members, university students, young high school aged students and community members. By the mid 1970s, the anti-apartheid movement gained momentum. In 1976, during the Soweto Uprising, Black South African students protested against educational discrimination and the police killed more than 500 people. In 1977, Steve Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness Movement was beaten, arrested and died in police custody inciting more urgency to end apartheid. By the 1980s, the anti-apartheid struggle was strong and gaining international support.
June 16, 1976 - Thousands of Students Protest Afrikaans Language in Soweto. In this photo young boy Hector Pieterson being carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo after being shot by South African police. His sister, Antoinette Sithole, runs beside them. The boy was rushed to a local clinic and declared dead on arrival.
By 1986, President P.W. Botha declared a state of emergency and implemented martial law. Over the next four years, thousands of Black South Africans were detained or killed.
Boycotts and divestment took the form of refusing to buy South African goods, refusing to support South African professors, and refusing to make business investments in South Africa until apartheid ended. South Africa also did not compete in the Olympic Games from 1964 to 1988, as a part of the sporting boycott of South Africa during the Apartheid era.
On February 11, 1990, the government freed Nelson Mandela after 27 years of imprisonment and legalized the African National Congress (ANC). In 1991, negotiations between the government and anti-apartheid leaders began.
The elections began on April 27, 1994 and lasted 5 days. Many Black South African voters traveled for more than a day to the polls, and some waited in line for more than 24 hours to vote for the first time in their lives.