Apartheid How south africa struggled, overcame, and reacted afterwards.

Define Apartheid

The African government solidified the practice of racial segregation, naming it apartheid, the Afrikaner word for “separate.” White lawmakers passed laws requiring people of different races to live in different neighborhoods, shop at different stores, work different types of jobs, and use different public facilities. The government also required nonwhites to carry documents allowing them to be present in white areas. Finally, the government created 10 African homelands in South Africa and forcibly moved black Africans from areas designated as “white” to these areas. They stated that all black Africans were citizens of these homelands rather than South Africa. This meant that black Africans had no voting rights in South Africa and were not represented in the South African government.

Causes

Racial segregation had been practiced in South Africa since European settlement. White settlers claimed land and resources while treating other races as second-class citizens. This practice became more extreme in 1948, when the National Party—a political party dedicated to upholding white supremacy in South Africa—was elected into power.

Implementation

Over the next several years, the government solidified the practice of racial segregation, naming it apartheid, the Afrikaner word for “separate”. White lawmakers passed laws requiring people of different races to live in different neighborhoods, shop at different stores, work different types of jobs, and use different public facilities. The government also required nonwhites to carry documents allowing them to be present in white areas. Finally, the government created 10 African homelands in South Africa and forcibly moved black Africans from areas designated as “white” to these areas. They stated that all black Africans were citizens of these homelands rather than South Africa. This meant that black Africans had no voting rights in South Africa and were not represented in the South African government.

Abolition

Many South Africans opposed apartheid from the beginning. Black African groups protested, held strikes, rioted, and committed acts of sabotage. Nelson Mandela led the African National Congress (ANC) in civil disobedience actions, such as protests against South African laws that required nonwhites to carry documentation. After police forces massacred unarmed black South Africans at a protest in 1960, Mandela and the other ANC leaders decided to use acts of structured violence against the apartheid government. In 1964, the government sentenced Mandela and other ANC leaders to life in prison. Violent and nonviolent protests continued throughout the 1970s and 1980s. The international community responded by banning South Africa from the Olympics and imposing sanctions in the 1980s. In the 1980s, increasing international pressure and domestic protests led the president of South Africa, F. W. de Klerk, to begin making changes. South Africa changed rapidly as de Klerk desegregated public facilities, released Mandela from prison, and then repealed the rest of the apartheid laws. De Klerk and anti apartheid leaders worked together to create a new government that represented all South Africans. In 1994, South Africa held elections in which people of all races could vote. Mandela became the first president of the new South Africa. Archbishop Desmond Tutu, a leader in the struggle against apartheid, called the new South Africa the “Rainbow Nation,” one that included many races.

Effects

In the past 20 years, the new South Africa has faced many challenges, including a struggle against AIDS, political corruption, white supremacist violence, and economic inequity. Many of these challenges have their roots in South Africa’s apartheid past.

Nonwhite South Africans were required to carry passbooks, especially when visiting white areas.
Black South Africans resisted apartheid in many ways, including a series of demonstrations in the township of Soweto in 1976.
Nelson Mandela and F. W. de Klerk led negotiations to create a new South African constitution, ending apartheid.
Some areas of land were “white only” meaning black people couldn’t even step foot on them.
Many South Africans grouped together and eventually stopped the apartheid South Africa.

(Video Link)

This video is about a high school anti-apartheid protest.

It is a South African protest song that came to Europe via Tanzania. It reflects the determined faith and unity of those who fought against apartheid.

Created By
NICHOLAS BAMFORD
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