Causes of apartheid- when the National Party—a political party dedicated to upholding white supremacy in South Africa—was elected into power.
Implementation- the government solidified the practice of racial segregation, naming it apartheid, the Afrikaner word for “separate.” White lawmakers passed laws requiring people of different races to live in different neighborhoods, shop at different stores, work different types of jobs.
Abolition- Black African groups protested, held strikes, rioted, and committed acts of sabotage. Nelson Mandela led the African National Congress (ANC) in civil disobedience actions.
Effects- De Klerk and anti apartheid leaders worked together to create a new government that represented all South Africans. In 1994, South Africa held elections in which people of all races could vote. Mandela became the first president of the new South Africa.
Nelson Mandela, who was jailed for 27 years by a white-minority government as a terrorist and walked free as a septuagenarian to lead South Africa to its first multiracial democracy, dies at 95.
Protesters outside the South African Embassy in London in August 1990. [Anti-Apartheid Movement/Bodleian Library]
Nelson Mandela, right, and Archbishop Desmond Tutu in Cape Town, South… (Dudley Brooks / Washington…)
Protest against Chris Hani’s assassination, 1993. Hani fiercely opposed South Africa's apartheid government.
Nelson Mandela and his wife, Winnie, give the clenched fist salute as they sing the hymn of the African National Congress