Hello! My name is Rachel and welcome to my presentation!

Rachel Truppman EUH 2001 PTC Module 3

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, born Lady Mary Pierrepoint, was a well studied upper-class English woman who is well known for her writings to her sister and acquaintances while in Constantinople(present-day Istanbul, Turkey) for her husband’s occupation as ambassador to the Porte. The letters were published in "The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu" which was edited by her great-grandson Lord Wharncliffe. In her letters, she writes about eastern life and customs. Her letters demonstrate her sense of humor as well as depth, which was uncommon for a female writer of her time. The letters were introduced by a preface written by the eminent Mary Astell. She is also famous for her visit to Turkey in which she described the inoculation for the smallpox. In addition to her letters, she wrote poetry and satirical sketches.

Art in the Ottoman Empire

Istanbul was the capital of the Ottoman Empire until 1922. It was previously, Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

Founded on the Istanbul Peninsula, the Topkapi Palace was the home to the imperial family as well as the center of government of the Ottoman Empire.
Designers in the palace ateliers repeated designs and motifs in multiple medians. These designs were also used by artisans outside the palace and then sold or exported. Popular designs incorporated flowers such as tulips.

In the Palace, people sat on cushions and ate around a tray; however, in the 19th century, they westernized, introducing the use of tables, chairs, European porcelain and silver cutlery.

All of the sultans were skilled in an area of the arts. Sultan Abdulmecid was skilled in calligraphy, an art widely practiced in the Ottoman Empire.

Writing box by Sultan Abdulmecid Qur'an by Sheikh Hamdullah

Ottoman artwork and luxury items were usually obtained through a network of bazaars or hans.

Grand Bazaar of Istanbul

Luxury Items sold at bazaars include: rugs and Iznik Ceramics

Holy Islamic cities such as Mecca and Medina were within the Ottoman Empire’s boundaries and the sultans took measures, such as building forts, to protect pilgrimage routes.

Art in Ottoman Mosques

Prayer rugs were used to keep worshipers in a straight line.

Stained glass windows in mosques featured flowers and writings

Art also served to visually emit the authority and power of the sultan. Such pieces of art include: Figures on tiles, decorations, ornaments, and grandiose buildings. ; Ishak Pasa Palace, Turkey

Natural History and Natural Diversity in Post-Revolution Era France

The Jardin des Plantes and Malmaison garden feature non-native plants and animals. These diverse settings helped to improve scientific knowledge, agricultural production, and economic success. The non-native animal species include one giraffe who became a state celebrity after walking from Marseilles to Paris, two elephants, and many other species. The journal “Music for Elephants” describes the two elephants and serves as an early record of the study of paleontology.

Jardin des Plantes, Paris Museum of Natural History, Paris, France
Malmaison, private garden of Napoleon's wife Empress Josephine, in Rueil-Malmaison, France

Napoleon’s wife, Empress Josephine, was the first to breed Australian black swans in captivity. Her garden also included 250 different kinds of roses. Josephine once paid 100 gold louis for an amaryllis.


As deforestation increased, France sought out other non-native plant species. They were sent oak leaves, acorns and Franklinia from North America.

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was an intellectual movements which gave rise to philosophers and scientific thinkers. These philosophers/thinkers redefined the relationship between humanity and nature/divinity. As a result of these thinkers, criticism increased and everything was questioned.

Scientific methods were developed and established the belief that nature is unchangeable for it is governed by a natural set of laws. Many philosophers claimed that reason is the way to a happier and better society and encouraged education (male).

John Locke was an English philosopher who believed people were inherently good, but corrupted by their environment.

One area in question during this time was that of women and whether their inferiority to men was innate. There also emerged the debate of whether the purpose of education should make a woman equal to a man or to just be enough for her to be a man’s partner.

Jean Jacques Rousseau; Emile, 1792; In his book "Emile", Rousseau stated that the purpose of a woman’s education was to serve a man.
Mary Wollstonecraft; Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792 ; The “Vindication of the Rights of Woman" was written in disagreement to Rousseau’s "Emile". Mary Wollstonecraft stated women should first obtain the character as a human being rather than divided by the label of sex and that the individual should have enough education so that they are able to be independent. She asserts that men and women have the same innate qualities, but that women are systematically oppressed by men and have their rights defined as their duties to serve men.

The value of experience over education arose in the late 1800’s. In this era, less men were attending university leaving open spaces for women to fill and eventually changing cultural ideals.

Works Cited

Darty, Amy. “ Enlightenment Thought and Inquiry.” UCF Webcourses. n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2017.


“Lady Mary Wortley Montague.” The Penny Cyclopedia. Vol V. London: Charles Knight & Co., 1839. 251-2.


“Of Elephants & Roses: Encounters with French Natural History, 1790-1830.” American Philosophical Society. n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2017.


“The Ottomans: From humble origins as a small emirate in Northwest Anatolia, the Ottomans rose to become one of the greatest Islamic empires in history.” Museum With No Frontiers. n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2017.


Created By
Rachel Truppman


Created with images by Asja. - "texture #92" • Asja. - "texture #92" • Friendbrook Meadows - "texture" • Ellenvd - "texture" • Kristine Paulus - "Franklinia alatamaha, New York Botanical Garden" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "The Sun: One Year in One Image" • frankieleon - "holiday focus"

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