The Ottoman, Safavid & Mughal Empire De'shamya stevens

The Ottoman Empire

In the year 1220, the Ottoman Empire was found. It began to take over other states and it went through so many changes and had great achievements. They had 3 influential languages but their main written Language was called Ottoman Turkish. Mathematics and astronomy were one of there biggest fields in achievements, "Ali al-Qushji had evidence that the earths was in motion. Many other people figured out how to get a decimal, fractions and the sun orbit.

During this time Osman (Ghazi leader) had won a fight with Byzantine and that's how they became know as the Ottomans. There was 2 major society groups one which was called " Raeya" which meant "protected flocks" and the other group was small and was used for ruling class for ottomans. During the 1300's they failed to capture the Constantinople's but on the brighter side from Europe they captured Christians slaves and called them "Janissaries", they were forced to learn and convert to Islamic laws (Sunni). Later on in 1336 Turkish leader TurkoMongol was born, while his years of leadership he made the Ottomans give back land they've taken from Ghazis rulers and In 1402 they also captured Sultan while Timur invaded Ankara. During the next sultan a civil war broke out, And the starting of the next period in expanding Mehmed II took over and the army defeated the crusaders at the battle of varna later in 1453 the Constantinople was conquered by Mehmed and the "City of Instanbul" and was reanamed the "Ottoman Capital". The second command to sultan was called "Viziers", the Empire conquering Hungary in 1529 Süleyman expanded, Süleyman brought the empire to greater ship known as " The Magnificent", Süleyman was called "The lawgiver" by the people. Around this time in 1529 The Ottomans ruled several areas such as Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Ottoman Empire trade partners was done mostly Seljuq Turks on the east and west side which containing sugar, cotton, and gold and etc. traded silk, brocade and damask and other rich fabrics.

SAFAVID EMPIRE

👈🏾Empire & Esmail 👉🏾

Neighbors : Sunnie Ottomans & Uzbek which were on northeast not sides went to war with savfavid. Safavid were Muslim and they had war because of that. They were close with Iraq and Iran and they traded things with them, Iraq was the majority of the population and converted over. Esfahān was known throughout the Middle East as a spiritual and political of the first order. Religious interactions: Christian monks observed things.

Safavids were a descendant from "SAFI OD-DIN" around the 1200s. They developed a army to fight the political power and was called "Kizilbash" meaning " Red Heads" because of the red hats they wore. Their neighbors were the Uzbek tribe and the Sunni Ottomans, they traded traded silk, brocade and damask and other rich fabrics.. Esmail became the head of Kizilbash after he had escape from hiding in 1500 he made great accomplishments, he took control of Iran and some other parts of Iraq, A year later he made the city of Tabriz the Safavid capital and in 1524 he reigned the "King of Kings". Esmāīl forced Persians to convert from Sunni. Tahmāsp continued the fight after his father died but they lost the territory in 1570s to the Ottomans and the Uzbeks. In 1576 Abbās became shah and was called "The Great" because he wanted his military to be like the Ottomans he even converted them into Islam. With the army so strong and confident they took on the Uzbek and won back the territory that the Safavid had lost. The Decline of the empire happens in 1736 and Persia got separated into smaller states.

MUGHAL EMPIRE

Turkish Muslims controlled India in the 1300s. Indian warriors known as Rajputs princes challenged them, Timur (Mongol leader) tried to build an empire in Uzbek and in Central Asia but he'd been kicked out. Sultanate caught attention from the most powerful India neighbors it caused India to be left opened and Mongol attacked. With Akbar in control he improved the economy, sea routes attracted traders from Europe. Climate helped variety of crops grow and harvest. At only 13 Akbars grandson Bäbur took throne and reigned from 1556 - 1606, After he got married other Rajputs had gotten a chance for government positions. Akbar controlled all of northern and central India in 1605, the tax system was improved and based on what village produced over a 10 year period if poor they didn't have to pay their taxes. India had jewels and gold and they lived in way better conditions than the European kings.

Mughals had wonderful techniques in architecture by combining Islamic, Hindu and Persian cultures and styles. Later in life around the 1500s Akbar created a creed called "Divine of Faith", Allahu Akbar was the motto meaning "God is great". 3 major groups Islam, Hinduism and Jainism and other religions was blended. Muslims strongly opposed having new followers beyond Akbars court. He repealed that non- Muslims had to forced to pay tax , Akbar was good to all religions. Also in the 1500s a new religion named "Sikh" (faith), the faith called a lack of gods. The ideas they had caused a problem with the Hindu beliefs, Nanak became the first guru and around the 1600s they became enemies of the Muslims and the Mughal empire. 1657 Muhí-ud-Din killed his brothers and declared to be emperor, he cancelled all celebrations and music and didn't want anyone to know any other faith in the empire. He crushed people with elephants and destroyed thousands of Hindu temples. He later died in 1707 and thought to himself was his actions good enough for god.

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De'Shamya Stevens
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