A simile compares two different things using like or as. Ex: Sally jumps like a kangaroo.
A metaphor compares two different things without using like or as. Ex: Sally is a kangaroo.
An idiom is a collective meaning that is completely different from it's actual meaning. Ex: Josh is as cool as a cucumber when it comes to homework. (it means that Josh is relaxed when he does homework)
Personification is a human trait given to a non-human object or animal. Ex: The door whined as it opened.
Alliteration is a sentence with most of the words starting with the same sound. Ex: Tom tip-toed to turn off the TV.
A Hyperbole is an exaggeration. Ex: I was so tired I could sleep for a decade.
An allusion is a reference to a person, place, book, sports, history, or movies. Ex: He looks like Bruce wayne.
Finally an onomatopoeia is a sound or noise. Ex: The fireworks went KA-POW!