- Neutral Density -
Neutral Density or "ND" filters are filters which go on front of the lens and reduce the amount of light getting into the sensor. They are most commonly used when photographing bodies of water like the sea, lakes, rivers and waterfalls. All ND filters are neutral grey so that there is no colour cast on the images and it is just the amount of light that is altered. The effect that most people desire from ND filters is blurring water through long exposure.
This photo is a long exposure of a shoreline. The ND filter allows the sky to be properly exposed while also allowing the exposure to be long enough to blur the water.
Special Effect Filters
This photograph was taken using a star filter. Star filters make any bright light source flare outwards in the same way a star would if you were to look at it. This effect is strongest against a dark background such as the night sky.
This image was taken with centre spot filter which allows the centre of the image to be properly in focus but the outer edges are out of focus. This lens can be very effective when photographing faces or plants.
Digitally Layered Image
Digitally layered images are created in photoshop using the layers tool. Using layers Allows the user to experiment with different effects without destroying the original image. Using multiple layers also adds a great deal more control and customisation as each layer can individually edited.
In this image the photographer has made a black and white layer and then masked out the black and white area to reveal the colour beneath.
HDR stands for High Dynamic Range. HDR is a technique used to produce a higher range in luminosity than would otherwise be achievable with standard camera equipment. Some digital cameras have HDR capabilities built in, for others which do not HDR can be attained by taking a correctly exposed image then two more one under exposed and one overexposed. These three images can then be blended in photoshop to create a digital HDR.
This image has been edited to be an HDR image. We nan see this by the light over the hill is overexposed and the hill itself is underexposed as they are beside each other. If viewed in person this is closer to what a human eye would see.
Focus stacking is when the user will take multiple exposures of a subject but with each different shot the focus point is moved and when all the shots have been taken the images are stitched together in photoshop to crete an image that is entirely in focus. This technique is commonly used in studio work when the final image s going to be used for advertisement or going to be displayed on a billboard etc.
This image shows two exposure one taken with the front half of the fly in focus and the other with the rear half in focus. The third image is the combination of these two images and the result is the whole fly being in focus.