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Bird Skeletons By The Nature Collection for British Wildlife

The Nature Collection for British Wildlife

I am Susanna Ramsey and I have a unique collection of natural history objects relating to British Wildlife. Over the last ten years, I have assembled an extensive range of skulls, skeletons, bones, skins, feathers, wings, antlers, insect specimens and taxidermy, all from animals in the UK.

During 2010-2018, I took my Nature Collection into local primary schools to display and run workshops for the children, linking the exhibition to science topics in the National Curriculum such as Adaptations, Bones & Body Structure, Classification, Food Webs, Habitats, Life Cycles and Local Wildlife.

In 2018-2020, I worked with the leading schools' catalogue, TTS ,to create a range of Educational Resources for primary schools, nurseries, after school clubs and families. There are sets of Look & Learn Cards for British Birds, Mammals and Minibeasts, a Food Webs Activity Pack, Classification Packs for Natural History & British Wildlife, Animal Discovery Bags for exciting wildlife trails, Playground Signboards and Identification Wheels. To find out more about these products, click here.

In the school workshops, children and teachers were always completely fascinated to see what is inside the animals we see everyday, in the garden or local parks. On these web pages, I want to continue to share my enthusiasm for the skeletons of our local wildlife.

I hope to inspire more people to look in a new light, at the birds on our garden feeders and the mice in the shed.

What does a House sparrow's rib cage look like? Do Woodpeckers have tongues? Where do the bones lie on a Robin's wing? How many toes does a Wood pigeon have? How does a bat's wing compare to a bird's?

Looking into a House sparrow's rib cage. Such fragile bones!

What surprised me most about my Collection, is how beautiful everything is; the intricate shapes of the bones which fit perfectly into one another, a working 3D jigsaw puzzle.

I particularly love the rib cages of birds and small mammals. They are so delicate, yet despite death and cleaning by flesh-eating beetles, they still form a rigid, basket-like structure, sufficient to protect a beating heart and lungs. The parallel lines of the ribs, getting increasingly bigger and then smaller, form concentric circles, from the inside.

This main photo is taken, looking into a Mole's rib cage!

The rib cages of a Field mouse and a Robin are so similar, yet the animals live and move so differently!

Robin's rib cage, about 2.2cm long
Field mouse, rib cage, 1cm long x 1.5cm wide

The skeletons of our local animals are each unique, yet weirdly similar and familiar.

The more I examine the bones in my Collection, the more amazed I am at the miracle of every living creature. Each bone is so intricately-shaped and different to the rest; each fits perfectly in just one place on the skeleton like the overlapping tiers of feathers on a bird's wing. The skeleton provides the framework for the entire body from the tip of the nose to the tip of the tail and out along the limbs, to the tips of the claws. The joints allow the parts of the body to move in different directions so that each animal can do everything it needs to.

When you interweave through this complex skeleton, the network of muscles, tendons, veins, arteries, nerves and sense organs, plus the heart, brain, digestive and respiratory systems, waste and reproductive organs, all fully functioning, you can't help but be in awe.

The miracle too, is that every different species is a variation on a theme, with the same basic skeletal structure and individual bones, each evolved into a slightly different shape and size.

Magpie skeleton, from the tail

On these pages, I will examine some of the bird skeletons and skulls in my Collection, with brief explanations as to where the bones fit, how they differ or if they show particular adaptations.

I hope you will find these intricate structures as beautiful and amazing, as I do.

I am not a zoologist, so it is just a simple layman's explanation, as I understand it. Apologies, if there are any mistakes.

During the next few months of lockdown in 2021, I hope to create other web pages. Click below, to see if they are ready!

Bird Skeletons

House Sparrow and Goldfinch skeletons. The entire spine of the House sparrow is 7cm long.

Bird Skeletons: Adaptations for Flight

Birds have evolved to fly and have many unique features in their compact and lightweight skeleton. The skeleton makes up only about 5% of their total weight.

Many bird bones are hollow and filled with air sacs, linked to the lungs. These hollow bones are strengthened inside by a thin criss-cross structure, like honeycomb; the wing bones are like this. Other bones, like the skull and pelvis, are thin and full of holes.

Delicate bones of a Chaffinch skeleton. Rib cage and breastbone. (The rib cage is about 2cm long; each rib is 1mm wide.)

Birds do not have heavy teeth and the associated jaw muscles; instead food is torn up by the beak, swallowed in larger pieces and broken down in the stomach, by the muscles in the gizzard. This adaptation moves the muscles and weight to the bird's centre of gravity, away from the head. In fact, the bulk of the bird's body is in the centre, underneath the wings. This makes the bird more stable in flight; it is unlikely to roll over, upside down, if its weight is all below it.

Many bones have been fused together to create rigid structures, which are light but strong. Birds have fused bones in the pelvis, chest, wings and legs.

House sparrow, fused bones in the pelvis, which is 2.5cm long x 1.2cm wide.

The breastbone in birds is distinctive, with a large keel-shaped blade projecting forward to act as an anchor for the enormous flight muscles, which are not situated on the wings, but in the chest.

The deeply-keeled breastbone, or 'sternum' of a Woodcock, a long distance flier, which migrates to the UK for the winter, from Northern Europe and Western Russia. The breastbone is 9cm long; the projecting keel is 2.5cm deep, at the widest point.

There is very little flexibility along the bird's body from the start of the shoulder blades to the tail. This gives extra stability in flight.

Ring-necked parakeet. This shows the rigidity of the bird's skeleton, along the length of the spine.

Bird Skeleton

The skeleton will be examined, in the following order. Click below, to go directly to a section.

Tawny owl skeleton. The whole spine is 20cm long.

Skull

Bird skulls are made of light, delicate bone. You can see by the size of the eye sockets, that sight is their most important sense. The beak also dominates the skull.

In bird skulls, there is little room for the brain. However, it has been discovered that birds have many more brain cells, or 'neurons', than mammals do, in the part of the brain which deals with intelligence; so it may be that their brain cells are just more densely packed.

Eye Rings

All birds have a ring of overlapping, vertical, bony plates which surround and protect the eyes. The eye ring is called the 'sclerotic ring'.

Tawny owl skull, with eye ring in place. The skull is 6.9cm long x 5cm wide. The eye ring is 3cm diameter, with the hole 1.7cm wide.
Great spotted woodpecker, eye ring. The bony ring is 1.3cm diameter.

Dinosaurs also had sclerotic rings and snakes still do; a shared adaptation, connecting birds to their distant past and to their reptilian relatives.

Bird skulls are light and strengthened by struts of bone, as you can see in the photo, below.

Underside of a Song thrush's skull, at the base of the beak. This section measures 2cm long x 1cm wide.
Back of a Jackdaw's skull, 3cm wide

The round hole at the base of the skull, the 'foramen magnum', is where the spinal cord goes into the brain case.The small ball, directly below the hole, is where the first neck vertebra joins onto the skull, with a ball and socket joint. (This is the ball.) This is what a Jackdaw's head spins on.

Beak

Birds have a tough layer of keratin around their upper and lower 'mandibles', or beak. Keratin is what our nails and hair are made from. It is also what feathers are made of. This sheath, called the 'rhampotheca', protects the bones at the tip of the beak, where they get the most wear and tear, from feeding, preening and nest building.

Peregrine falcon

The holes in the top of the beak are called the 'nares' or nostril. This is where air passes into the bird's lungs.

Colourful tip of a Moorhen's beak. The 'rhampotheca' is 3.5cm long.

Beak shapes and sizes vary enormously between different bird species.

The Shoveler duck has a fringe around the edge of the beak, to sift out food in the water. This skull is 11cm long x 3cm wide.
The Ring-necked parakeet has a huge beak, for cracking open seeds and nuts. The skull is 4.8cm long x 3cm high.
Jackdaws have a multi-purpose beak, for picking up invertebrates and their larvae, collecting seeds and scavenging on carrion. The skull is 7cm long x 2.5cm high
Wood pigeons have a very delicate beak for picking up seeds. This skull is 6cm long x 2.5cm high
Kestrels have a relatively long, shallow skull (4.6cm long x 2.6cm high.) They have a special triangle-shaped projection in the upper beak, which fits into a corresponding notch below it. The Kestrel uses this to sever the spine of its victims, so they are unable to fight back.

Birds have a stiff tongue for moving food to the back of the mouth; they even have bones inside the tongue! They have no teeth. Instead, food is broken down and processed in the gizzard.

Bones inside a Goldfinch's tongue. The total length is 2.5cm
Great spotted woodpeckers have a very long tongue for extracting insect larvae from dead wood. The tongue lies in a channel around the top of the skull, when not in use. This skull is 2.2cm wide.

Ear Holes

Birds do not have ears, or flaps of skin and cartilage like mammals do, which lead to the ear canal. They just have small ear holes which lead directly to the inner ear. The ear holes are located immediately behind the eyes.

Shhh. The way into a Tawny owl's ear canal, just behind the huge eye ring.

Spine

The sections of a bird's spine are examined more closely, in their appropriate regions, such as the rib cage and pelvis, but this is a general introduction to the spinal column.

Animals with a backbone, or 'spine', are called vertebrates. All birds, mammals, fish, amphibians and reptiles have a spine.

Ring necked parakeet, part of the spine

The spine is a line of small bones, called 'vertebrae', which link up to form the central column in the animal's skeleton. The spine connects at the top, to the skull and extends to the tip of the tail.

In birds, the spine has little flexibility apart from in the neck and tail. Birds cannot bend at the waist like most mammals can. This rigidity is important for helping the bird's body resist the forces exerted by the wings in flight.

The spinal cord runs along a tunnel, called the 'neural canal'. It is formed inside the small vertebrae. Nerves branch out from the spinal cord, through gaps between the bones.

Tawny owl, neural canal in the neck vertebrae

The shape of the vertebrae varies, depending on whether they are in the neck, chest, back, hips or tail. The different vertebrae are neck (cervical), chest (thoracic), lower back (lumbar), hip (pelvic) and tail (caudal).

The first type of vertebrae in the spine are the neck, or 'cervical' vertebrae. Different species of bird have different numbers of neck vertebrae.

The chest, or 'thoracic' vertebrae connect to the ribs. A large ridge of bone projects up from each of the thoracic vertebrae.

Tawny owl, from right to left along the spine: neck and chest vertebrae, synsacrum, tail vertebrae and pygostyle

In birds, the spine then becomes very different to a mammal spine as all of the lower back or' lumbar' vertebrae, the hip or 'sacral' vertebrae and some of the tail or 'caudal' vertebrae are fused with the bones of the pelvis to form one of the largest bones in the skeleton, called the 'synsacrum'. This fusion of bones takes away the flexibility which most animals have, in the middle of their spine. (Humans can bend at the waist.) The extra stability it provides helps to strengthen the bird's body against the pressures imposed by flight. It also keeps the bird's body streamlined in flight.

A few tail, or 'caudal' vertebrae extend beyond the fused bones in the pelvic region.

House sparrow, thoracic vertebrae, fused pelvis and tail vertebrae

Neck

Birds have such large eyes, they cannot move their eyeballs within the sockets. To compensate for this, they have evolved long, flexible necks, so they can twist their neck, instead.

Robin: rib cage, breastbone, collar bone, neck vertebrae and skull. From the tip of the beak to the base of the rib cage measures 6.5cm.

Birds also use the beak for preening and manipulating food, which is necessary as they cannot use their forearms, which have evolved into wings.

Birds have surprisingly long necks which are usually tucked away and not visible beneath all their feathers!

Different species of bird have different numbers of neck bones, between thirteen and twenty five; humans have just seven.

Swans have long necks, to reach down into the water, to feed.

The bones in the neck are called cervical' vertebrae. In mammals, the neck vertebrae are tightly stacked and have projections, called 'processes', which extend out to the side; these restrict the range of movement and make the mammal neck stronger. In birds, the shape of the cervical vertebrae allows much more movement and the processes are much smaller; these two factors give the neck much greater flexibility.

House sparrow, cervical vertebrae

The first vertebra below the skull is the 'atlas'. It is a ring-shaped bone, which allows the head to nod.

The second vertebra is the 'axis'. It has a ball shape on which the skull can swivel. The atlas, which lies above the axis, has a socket which this ball slots into.

The remaining cervical vertebrae below the atlas and axis, all have a similar shape.

Pectoral Girdle

The pectoral girdle fits around the rib cage and anchors the bird's wings to the central core of the body.

The bones which form the 'pectoral girdle' are crucial when it comes to flight. The girdle consists of four bones: the breastbone, or 'sternum'; the two vertical, pillar-like 'coracoid' bones; the two horizontal, elongated shoulder blades or 'scapulae'; and the fused collar bones, the 'furcula'.

See the beautifully-curved collar bones and elongated scapula of the Woodcock, stabilised in the centre by the coracoid bones, which connect to the sternum.

The first major bone on the wing, the 'humerus', connects to this girdle of bones, at the point where the coracoid, scapula and furcula meet.

Here, on a Green woodpecker skeleton, the humerus, (4cm), is still connected to the pectoral girdle. The radius and ulna are 5cm long.

The breastbone or 'sternum'. In birds which can fly, the breastbone is enlarged with a bony projection, shaped like the keel of a boat; this is where the flight muscles attach. The depth of the keel varies in different species of bird; it usually indicates how strong a flier, the bird is. Birds which migrate long distances have an extended keel and birds which rarely fly like the pheasant or chicken, have a much flatter breastbone. Bats also have a keeled sternum.

Deep keel (2.5cm) on the breastbone of a Wood pigeon, 10.5cm long. The coracoid bone joins on the left and the ribs join from above. Note also, the curved holes at the back, which make the skeleton more lightweight.

The two 'coracoid' bones are like pillars, linking the sternum to the shoulder blades. This is an extra bone in birds, which braces the shoulder blades against the stresses of flight. They prevent the chest being squeezed, as the wings move up and down.

Ring-necked parakeet, coracoid bones, (2.8cm), attaching to the sternum.

The long shoulder blade, or 'scapula', forms a large surface area on each side, for the shoulder muscles to attach onto. They lie back along the top of the ribcage, parallel with the vertebrae. They glide over the surface of the ribcage, as the bird's wings move up and down in flight.

From left to right: collar bone, coracoid bones (3.5cm long) and scapulae of a Tawny owl.

The collar bones, or 'clavicles' are fused to form a U shaped bone, called the 'furcula' in front of the rib cage. This is the 'wishbone' in a roast chicken! The breast muscles attach here. As a bird flies, the furcula acts like a spring, flexing in and out, reacting to the flapping of the wings. When the wings come down, the furcula expands outwards and when the wings rise, the furcula springs back into its normal position.

A tiny canal runs through the point where the scapula joins the coracoid bone. The large muscle which is used to raise the wings in flight, lies on the breastbone below the wings. A tendon connected to this muscle, runs through this canal; it then attaches to the humerus, the first bone of the wing. The tendon acts like a pulley and enables the humerus to raise the wing, using muscles which are beneath it. Birds have the mass of their flight muscles located centrally, below their body, not spread out along the wings. This helps stabilise the body in flight.

Robin. The tendon connecting the humerus to the muscles in the breast, runs through the hole on the left, at the top of the shoulder blades.
Green woodpecker. You get an idea of the strength and stability of a bird's skeleton from this angle! The long, curved shoulder blades stretch back over the rib cage. The humerus on the left, which would move up and down, in flight, is still attached.

Rib Cage

Birds have a short, deep rib cage. They have seven pairs of ribs.

The first two pairs are tiny and attach to the bottom two cervical vertebrae. They are called 'cervical' ribs. They are floating ribs and do not connect with the 'sternum', or breastbone.

Each of the next five ribs attaches to the chest, or 'thoracic' vertebrae. These ribs have two sections: the 'vertebral rib' above, joined to the spine, and the 'sternal rib' below, connected to the sternum or breastbone. The final rib does not attach to the breastbone.

(The main, 'rainbow' photo shows the rib cage of a Song thrush.)

Thoracic vertebrae and deep rib cage of a House sparrow, from above, looking towards the neck.

In birds, the five central ribs each has a small flap of bone which overlaps onto the next one; these are called 'uncinate processes'. These assist with expanding the ribcage for breathing and strengthen it against the rigours of flight when the wings beat up and down.

Ribs of a Tawny owl, showing the overlapping 'uncinate processes'. The rib cage is 5cm deep.
View inside the rib cage of a House martin!

A vertical ridge of bone projects up from each of the thoracic vertebrae. This forms a ridge along the back of the body. This is called the 'neural spine'. Back muscles attach here. The chest or 'thoracic' vertebrae are fused together, in some bird species such as the wood pigeon.

Tawny owl. Thoracic vertebrae from above, towards the pelvis.
A view into a Robin's rib cage, which is about 3cm long.

Pelvis

Paper-thin, fused bones of the synsacrum; the pelvic girdle of a Chaffinch.

In birds, several of the vertebrae (the last three thoracic, all three lumbar, the two pelvic, and six tail vertebrae) have fused with the pelvic bones, to form a distinctive, beautifully-shaped bone called the 'synsacrum'.

These fused bones create a strong, central platform where the leg and tail muscles can attach. They also provide protection to the bird's organs, underneath. Another benefit of the synsacrum is that it helps birds maintain a solid, streamlined posture in flight, which reduces air resistance.

The beautiful 'synsacrum' of a Wood pigeon, 4.7cm long x 4.5cm wide.
In this view, of the underside of a Ring-necked parakeet's synsacrum, you can count the six fused caudal / tail vertebrae, with projections on either side. (That section is 1cm long.)
A side view. Tawny owl, from left to right: caudal vertebrae (tail bones), synsacrum, thoracic vertebrae, rib cage, sternum and cervical vertebrae

The thigh bones or 'femur', join the pelvis with a ball and socket joint, linking into the round hole, visible in the above photo. Shown below for a Chaffinch, with the thigh bone still attached. Note how much sturdier the leg bone is, than the delicate ribs!

Femur attaching to the pelvis, on a Chaffinch skeleton

Tail

As you saw in the previous section, six of the tail or 'caudal' vertebrae are fused into the synsacrum. Five or six caudal vertebrae continue out from the synsacrum, as individual bones.

Finally, at the tip of the tail is a flat blade of bone called the 'pygostyle'. This is a fusion of the last four caudal vertebrae. The muscles which attach to it, help the bird to steer, take off and land, by adjustments of the tail.

The spinal cord runs all the way along the spine from the skull to the tail. It is enclosed inside the central tunnel, the 'neural canal', formed by the vertebrae. See the tiny round hole in the photo below, which is almost at the tip of a House sparrow's tail; the spinal cord would have run through this hole.

House sparrow, tail vertebrae leading to the pelvis. Note the tiny round hole, for the spinal cord.
Magpie, from left to right: part of the synsacrum, six tail vertebrae and the pygostyle

The tail feathers on the left, are from a Magpie. They are iridescent when they catch the light!

Ring-necked parakeet, five tail vertebrae and the pygostyle.The tail bones measure 1.8cm in total.
Unusual fan-shaped tail bones of the Kestrel, (2cm long x 1.2cm wide, in total). The Kestrel spreads out its tail, to hover motionless in the sky, hunting for food.

Wings

Birds' wing bones have a similar structure to the human arm and hand. When not in flight, the wings fold up over the sides of the bird's body into three, in line with these three sections.

Tawny owl, wing bones. From right to left: humerus (8.5cm), radius and ulna (9.6cm), hand and finger bones (6cm). Total length is 24.1cm

The first bone is a long upper arm bone, the 'humerus'. The major flight muscles on the breast attach to the humerus, which drives the wings.

There are two slimmer, forearm bones, the 'radius and ulna', which can slide over each other, as ours do. This enables a bird to twist its wing for steering, during flight. The mid wing, or 'secondary' flight feathers attach onto the ulna, the broader of the two bones. You can see slight bumps along the ulna, which is where the feathers attach.

Bumps on the ulna of a Green woodpecker, where the secondary, flight feathers attach.

Birds have two small wrist bones between the forearm and bones at the wing tip. See photo, below.

The wrist and hand have fused into a blade-like bone called the 'carpometacarpus', which has an oval window in it. These bones carry the the main flight feathers, called the 'primaries'.

Wood pigeon, bones at the wing tip. These bones measure in total, 13.3cm x 1cm wide

The thumb bones have become one small bone which projects out at the base of the 'carpometacarpus'. (Above the 'carpometacarpus', in this picture.) This thumb bone supports the feathers of the 'alula', or 'false wing''; it is raised when a bird comes in to land, to prevent it stalling, like the flaps which are raised on aeroplane wings.

The bones of the second and third fingers have fused into one at the very tip of the wing. The bones of the fourth and fifth fingers have been lost completely, as bird skeletons have evolved.

Kestrel, bones at the wing tip, (this section is 5cm long), with the feather shafts still attached. The feather shafts have been bitten through, perhaps by a fox.

The joint between the carpometacarpus and the radius and ulna, (which is like the wrist), allows a considerable range of movement, so that the bird can fold this outer section of the wing, back underneath the second section, close in to the body, when not in flight. (We cannot bend our hands back, underneath our forearms.)

Grey heron. The wing bones stretch out along the front, or leading, edge of the wing. Everything behind that, is just feathers.

The relative lengths of the three sections of the wing, vary for different bird according to their flight style and how much flying they do.

House sparrow, showing the length of the wings in relation to the body.

Legs & Feet

Like most vertebrates, birds have a long thigh bone or 'femur', which connects to the pelvis or hip, with a ball and socket joint.

Below that the lower leg bone, the 'tibia' has fused with some of the foot bones to create the 'tibiotarsus'. The 'fibula' is like a thin pin, running alongside this bone.

Green woodpecker, femur, (4.3cm), with a ball projecting at one end, where it connects to the pelvis. It is attached at the other end, to the 'tibiotarsus'.

The bones of the lower foot have fused to form another medium-length bone, the 'tarsometarsus', which appears to give a bird's leg, three sections.

Tawny owl, femur (6cm) and tibiotarsus (8.9cm). See the thin, pin-like fibula.

The extended, third section of the leg helps birds take off and land. It also gives extra leverage when they jump forward, or paddle in the water.

In birds, the knee joint is usually covered in feathers and so is rarely seen. This makes it look as if a bird's knee bends backwards, but in fact the leg joint, which is visible below the body and feathers, is the ankle or heel.

Starling

Birds actually walk on their toes, not on their feet. This is described as being 'digitigrade'; they stand on their toes with their ankles in the air. They generally have four toes, three forward-facing and one, equivalent to our thumb, backward-facing.

The skin on the toes is scaly, offering protection against the wear and tear of walking, feeding and landing on branches.

The feet vary according to the habitat, lifestyle and diet of the bird.

Tawny owls have sharp talons to squeeze and kill their prey. Toes, including the claws, are 5cm long.
Mallard ducks have webbing between their toes, so they displace more water when they paddle. The toes, including the claws, measure 7cm.
Woodpeckers are unusual because they have two toes pointing forwards and two, backwards. This provides a firmer grip on the tree, when they are drumming, drilling out holes or clambering around on the trunk, to feed. The longest toe and claw is 3cm.
In pigeons, and many birds, the toes are covered on the top, with large, overlapping scales. Underneath, the skin is covered with rounded pads which cushion and protect them. The longest toe is 5cm, including the claw.
So much still to discover!

Exhibits

The birds here, all died of natural causes. They were either found by Susanna Ramsey or donated by friends and family to The Nature Collection, as an educational resource. Huge thanks for all the tiny, carefully-wrapped bundles of feathers and bones, to Steve Read, John Lock, Chris Matcham, Franko Maroevic, Tim Howard, Jan Wilczur, Simon Richards, Peter Veniard, Paula Redmond, Phil Davies, Bob & Sally Black, Jo & Frank Sheppard and Katie Ramsey.

Thanks also to Tonja Grung, of Made from the Dead Taxidermy, for sharing her incredible knowledge, patience and skill. I will never forget our amazing sessions on bird taxidermy. https://www.instagram.com/madefromthedead_taxidermy/

The delicate skeletons were cleaned to perfection by a colony of flesh-eating, dermestid beetles, skilfully managed by Edward de Geer. See https://www.instagram.com/edward_de_geer/

Please note: Tawny owls are endangered species and are protected in the UK. The Tawny owl skeleton was retained with the approval of the Animal & Plant Health Agency (APHA) by obtaining the appropriate, Article 10, CITES certificate.

Sources of Information:

  • Manual of Ornithology by Noble S Proctor & Patrick J Lynch
  • DK Eyewitness Book: Skeleton
  • DK Eyewitness Book: Bird (My initial inspiration!)
  • London Natural History Museum, Bird display cases
  • Science Direct website. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/veterinary-science-and-veterinary-medicine/synsacrum
  • Bird Skeletons by Brian McCaulay. https://brianmccauley.net/bio-6a/bio-6a-lab/chordates/bird-skeletons

BRITISH WILDLIFE PRODUCTS

If you know children who are interested in nature, are a teacher, or would like to learn more about British Wildlife yourself, explore the range of British Wildlife products recently created by The Nature Collection and the leading schools' catalogue, TTS.

The Classification: Natural History pack features 40 small photos of animal skeletons, skulls, feathers, insect specimens and much more, all from The Nature Collection!

The products are perfect for use in primary schools, nurseries, after school clubs, forest schools or at home with friends and family. Click on the links below to find out about each product.

Look & Learn Cards: British Birds, Mammals, Minibeasts

Food Webs Activity Pack

Classification: British Wildlife & Natural History

Identification Wheels: British Birds, Mammals & Minibeasts

Discovery Bags: British Birds, Mammals, Minibeasts

Playground Signboards: Birds, Mammals, Minibeasts

Created By
Susanna Ramsey
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Credits:

Susanna Ramsey