A: Cloning is the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens all the time in nature for example when a cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination. B: Cloning isn't like what most people think where it's like the movies. Cloning happens ALL the time in nature. C: Actually there are not really any major ethical issues. It actually helped scientists find better techniques.
D: there is only really one various problem and that's the dividing of the cells to clone E: Segments of DNA are replicated and help with cloning embryos. F: It helped me already get a picture of how cells or organisms can clone.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM (GMO)
A: Genetically modified organism (GMO), organism whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favour the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products. B: GMO has been used since 1996, and is still being used. C: There is only one real ethnical problem and that's engineering crops can dramatically increase per area crop yields and, in some cases, reduce the use of chemical insecticides.
D: With an ever increasing global population, massive 3rd world hunger, and with an estimation that a child dies for every two seconds world wide from starvation; this does not even take into account the number of people who are mal and undernourished, there is a great promise in the use of this technology to benefit not only the farmers, but also societies world wide. E: Organisms that have new genes inserted into them are called transgenic or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The two current methods used to engineer a transgenic crop are by the means of a gene gun or through bacterial vectors mainly Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
F: During whole genome sequencing, researchers collect a DNA sample and then determine the identity of the 3 billion nucleotides that compose the human genome.
STEM CELL RESEARCH - ADULT VS. EMBRYONIC
A: The stem cell controversy is the consideration of the ethics of research involving the development, use, and destruction of human embryos. Most commonly, this controversy focuses on embryonic stem cells. B: Yes it is currently being used and defiantly towards the near future (https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/6.htm states). C: However, human embryonic stem cell research is ethically and politically controversial because it involves the destruction of human embryos. In the United States the question of when human life begins has been highly controversial and closely linked to debates over abortion. D: The hope going forward is that stem cells can also be used as a “renewable source of replacement cells and tissues” to treat common and serious diseases without the need for organ transplants or surgeries, including: macular degeneration, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease. E: In the recent years, several stem cells have been initially used in the treatment of diseases, such as in bone marrow transplant. At the same time, isolation and culture experimental technologies for stem cell research have been widely developed in recent years. F: The sequencing of the human genome has led to mushrooming research in the ethics of human genomics and stem cell research. Several projects have been completed in this ongoing research inquiry.
Example of Stem Cell Research
DNA FINGERPRINTING AND CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION
A: Only a small sample of cells is needed for DNA fingerprinting. A drop of blood or the root of a hair contains enough DNA for testing. Semen, hair, or skin scrapings are often used in criminal investigations . A person who has DNA fingerprinting done voluntarily usually provides a sample of blood taken from a vein.
Example of DNA Fingerprinting
B: Yes, DNA fingerprinting and crime scene investigation is definitely still being used today. It will be used in the future as well. Scientists and forensics are trying to figure out a way to despite new technology and the folly of human beings. C: Many ethical and legal problems arise in the preparation of a DNA database, and these problems are especially important when one analyses the legal regulations on the subject. D: There are a lot of benefits in DNA fingerprinting and crime scene investigation. One big benefit is it is used to catch criminals, by semen, hair, blood, e.t.c. There are not really a lot of problems, but it's rare to find the wrong suspect in fingerprint and crime scene investigations. E: When broken glass is involved in a crime, putting together even tiny pieces can be key to finding important clues like the direction of bullets, the force of impact or the type of weapon used in a crime. Through its highly sensitive isotopic recognition ability, the LA-ICP-MS machine breaks glass samples of almost any size down to their atomic structure. F: The human genome is helpful because they're are billions of base pairs and that helps forensics a lot with catching crooks.
Example of crime scene investigation
PERSONAL ANCESTRY AND PATERNITY KITS
A: DNA test that examines your unique genetic code for clues about your family history. Then we use genetic science to determine family relationships within our database of AncestryDNA members and your ethnicity origins. B: Yes it is currently used by a lot of people. Most people are interested in finding out about their family history. Scientists are trying to figure out a way to make a 3D version of your ancestors in the future. C: For a growing number of people seeking DNA tests, exploring ancestral roots may be less important than discovering what they may be entitled to. From college applicants to prospective employees, reports suggest many are claiming to be of mixed race to gain access to special programs or privileges. This, despite the fact that the genetic test they take may only pinpoint a small percentage of mixed blood. D: If you’re working on a family tree or want to learn more about older ancestors, ancestry DNA testing is a great option. There are, of course, some limitations to the testing. For example, there are multiple types of tests and some can only be used by males. Others work for both males and females. E: There’s only one YOU. Yet you share common connections to the family in your past. Those connections are found in your DNA. F: Knowing the human genome is very important in ancestry. You need samples of blood or any type of DNA to determine your bloodline in your past or your ancestors.
Star Wars example of ancestry.
PCR AND GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
A: DNA Gel electrophoresis is usually performed for analytical purposes, often after amplification of DNA via PCR, but may be used as a preparative technique prior to use of other methods such as mass spectrometry, RFLP, PCR, cloning, DNA sequencing, or Southern blotting for further characterization. B: It is widely used in biology and forensic analysis. It enables researchers to amplify a selected piece of DNA present in a sample. C: In recent years, newer techniques have emerged that give greater specificity and detail about what is happening in living systems. While these have not supplanted electrophoresis techniques, and advanced manipulations can expand the viability of the technique, it is important to realize what gel electrophoresis can and cannot do.
D: Though both standard PCR and real time PCR follow a similar procedure, there are many advantages to real time PCR. One of the primary advantages of real time PCR is the ability to identify amplified fragments during the PCR process. E:
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/biotech-dna-technology/dna-sequencing-pcr-electrophoresis/a/gel-electrophoresis. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whatiscloning/. http://www.webmd.com/healthy-aging/features/cloning-facts-fiction