Southern Africa 377-396

Land forms and bodies of water

1) The cape of good hope at the southern tip of the continent is considered the place where two oceans meet.

2) The Kalahari desert is vast, sand covered plateau that sits some 3,000 feet above sea level.

3) The Orange River is Southern Africa's second-longest river. It begins in the highlands of Lesotho and flows westward to reach the Atlantic Ocean.


1) A series of plateaus that range in elevation from 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet cover most of the region. The northern plateaus extend from Malawi across Zambia and Angola.

2) The Kalahari desert is a vast sand-covered plateau that sits some 3,000 feet above sea level and is bordered by even higher plateaus.

3) In Angola the escarpment a steep cliff between a higher and lower surface runs parallel to the Atlantic Coast and continues through Namibia.

Bodies of water

1) The Zambezi

2) The Limpopo

3) The orange drain

4) The most common type of landform in southern Africa are the plateaus.


1) Parts of Angola and Mozambique have humid subtropical climates as do Malawi Zambia and northeastern Zimbabwe.

2) Much of northern Mozambique's coastline is watered by rain-bearing winds called monsoons that sweep in from the Indian ocean during the summer months.

3) The rainy season here is shorter then the tropical wet/dry zone and also brings less rainfall.

Temperate zones

1) Daily average temperatures range from upper 60 to the upper 70.

2) Part's of Angola and Mozambique have humid subtropical climates as do Malawi, Zambia, and northeastern Zimbabwe.

3) Temperatures are like those in the semiarid regions but ocean currents and moist ocean air bring up to 55 inches of rain annual.

Desert regions

1) In inland areas of Namib desert temperatures are hotter with summer highs from the upper 80 to more than 100.

2) The Kalahari's location-farther then the Namib and dry air make temperatures more extreme than in the Namib.

3) During wet years, desert grasses and bushes appear, much of the time however the Nambi is home to vast areas of barren sand.

Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?- Because the high elevation makes the temperatures cool.

What natural resources are found in Southern African and why are they important?- It is the world's largest producer of platinum chromium and gold. It has helped South Africa's industries grow.

South Africa's resources

1) The Republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world.

2) It is the worlds largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold, and one of the largest producers of diamonds both gems and industrial diamonds or diamonds used to make cutting or grinding tools.

3) This industry has attracted workers and investments from other countries that have helped South Africa's industry grow.

Energy resources

1) The Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Mozambique mine and burn coal from their own deposits to produce most of their electric power.

2) Zimbabwe and Zambia get electricity from the huge Kariba Gorge dam on the Zambezi river.

3) Oil and gas must be refined or changed into other products before they can be used.

Minerals and other resources

1) Namibia is one of Africa's richest countries in mineral resources, it is an important producer of tin, zinc, copper, gold, silver, and uranium.

2) In the 1990s rebels captured Angola's mines and sold the diamonds to continue a 20-year-old civil war against the government.

3) In countries outside Southern Africa groups have also mined diamonds to pay for rebellions and other violent conflicts, diamonds used for this purpose are called blood diamonds.


1) Poaching or illegally killing game is a problem, poachers shoot elephants for their valuable ivory tusks and rhinoceroses for their horns.

2) The animals live within and outside the many national parks and wildlife reserves that nearly every country has created to protect them.

How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?- It allows more sediment to enter the river which reduces the water flow and the electricity that the river produces.

Lesson 2- 388-393

Rise of kingdoms

1) Trade among the groups flourished,Ivory, gold, copper, and other goods moved from the interior to the east coast.

2) There such goods were exchanged for tools, salt, and luxury items including beads, porcelain, and cloth for China, India, and Persia.

3) Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years some of the people lived as hunter-gatherers,others farmed and herded cattle.

Great Zimbabwe

1) Around the year A.D. 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique.

2) Great Zimbabwe was the largest of many similar cities throughout the region, and by the 1300 it had became a great commercial center, collecting gold mined nearby and trading it to the Arabs at ports on the Indian Ocean.

The Mutapa Empire

1) In the late 1400 the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique.

2) Like the Great Zimbabwe the Mutapa Empire also thrived on the gold it mined and traded for goods from China and India.

3)They gradually gained control over the coastal trade in the 1500, and they gradually gained control over the empire and forced its people to mine gold for them.

Other Kingdoms

1) The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800 to form the Zulu Empire in what is now South Africa.

2) Shaka was killed in 1828 but his empire survived until the British destroyed it in the Zulu war of 1879.

European colonies

1)Around the 1500 Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.

Clashes in Southern Africa

1) During the 1600s until about the 1800s Europeans set up trading posts but did not establish colonies.

The union of South Africa

1) Beginning in the 1830s thousands of Boers left the colony in a migration called the Great Trek and settled north of the Orange river.

Colonialism in other areas

1) While the British and the Boers competed for south Africa other European countries were competing over the rest of Africa.

Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800s ? - Germany

Independence and equal rights

1) French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960, making it the first Southern African country to gain independence.

The end of Portuguese rule

1) While other countries gave up their African colonies Portugal refused to give theirs up, revolts for independence broke out in Angola in 1961 and in Mozambique in 1964.

The birth of Zimbabwe

1) Rebel leader Robert Mugabe was elected president and Rhodesia's name was changed to Zimbabwe.

Equal rights in South Africa

1) The white minority government stayed in power by limiting the black population educational and economic opportunities and political rights.

2) A strike by more than 60,000 black mine workers frightened white voters into electing am Afrikaner government in 1948 that promised to take action.

3) In 1995 the new government created a truth and reconciliation commission, its task was to ease racial tensions and heal the country by uncovering the truth about the human rights violations that had occurred under apartheid.

Lesson 3- 394-401

The people of the rigion

1) The population of Southern Africa is overwhelmingly black African but the largest white minority is in south Africa where whites are 10 percent of the population.

Population patterns

1) Fewer the 2 million people live in small countries of Lesotho and Swaziland.

2) Botswana and Namibia are much larger than Swaziland and Lesotho but their populations are only slightly larger.

3) Mozambique which is slightly smaller than Namibia and much smaller than Angola has a population greater than those two countries combined.

Ethnic and Culture Groups

1) One group the Shona makes up more than 80 percent of the population of the country of Zimbabwe.

2) South Africa's 9 million Zulu make up that countries largest ethnic group,but more than 7 million Xhosa also live there as well as the Khoekhoe.

3) About 4 million Tswana form the major population group in Botswana, a similar number of Ovimbundu and 2.5 million Mbundu make up approximately two-thirds of Angola's population.

Religion and Languages

1) In almost every country most of the people are Christians, Christianity was introduced to the region during the colonial era by Christian missionaries

2) South Africa has 10 official languages besides English; Zambia has 7.

What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?- The most practiced religion in Southern Africa is Christianity.

Life in Southern Africa

1) As in other regions of Africa life differs from city to countryside, many rural people continue to follow traditional ways of life.

Urban Life

1) Africa has four cities Durban, Ekurhuleni, Cape town, and Johannesburg with population of around 3 million

Urban growth and change

1)The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities services such as trash collection, sewage treatment and water distribution.

2) The regions cities have a mix of many ethnic groups like in Johannesburg where the wealth from nearby gold.

3) Johannesburg role as a mining, manufacturing, and financial center has attracted people from around the world.

Family and traditional life

1) Rural villages are often small consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses are built from rocks, mud bricks, woven sticks.

2) Artwork sometimes provides a family with a source of cash, wood and ivory carving are art forms that are generally produced by men.

Where in their countries do most southern Africans live?- Most of them live in urban ares

Southern Africa today

1) Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be a key to its future, but the region faces serious social, economic, and political challenges.

Health issues

1) In the majority of countries most people do not live beyond age 50 to 55.


1) In Angola Malawi and Mozambique about 100 to 120 of every 1,000 children die in infancy.

2) A major cause in death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS, Southern Africa has a higher HIV/ Aids rate then any other region in Africa.

3) Malaria a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries.

Progress and Growth

1) Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.

2) Only Zimbabwe and Swaziland continue to suffer economic decline and political unrest, largely due to repressive leaders,

Help from other countries

1) The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa, and other U.S. programs have provided billions of dollars to pay for medications and care fro AIDS suffering and AIDS orphans.

2) Taiwan's development of textile industry in Lesotho for example is giving some of that poor countries workers and alternative to employment in South Africa's mines.

Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?- Because they have lack of good health care.


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