Water pollution in Southeast Asia press review

Water is the most important ressource for human being. An human can live during 1 month without eat but he can't live more than 2 days without drink water. In South and Southeast Asia water is an important challenge because of the level of water pollution in this Area. All often carries pathogens that cause disease. In south Asia urban and rural water supplies are frequently contaminated with human faecal organisms but this is accepted as a norm. Some can buy bottled water (of dubious quality) but some peoples don't have enough money to buy bottled water so they are obliged to drink contaminated water.

When the water is not treated the level of childhood death improve a lot. The children are the most important target of the water pollution because they are weaker than adult peoples. The microbiological contamination of water not only causes childhood death, but also repeated bouts of diarrhoea among children aged less than two years. Each government of this area should fine some solutions because the failure to deliver clean water to the population of South Asia means more childhood deaths, less cognitive development, less educational achievement, and less economic growth. Water must be accessible by everyone, it also must be a right on the name of health and liberty.

The water engineers are making interventions in order to improve the water quality. They make analysis of the substances present in. But the impact of these interventions is not efficient enough. We need to confront the dogmatism who says that interventions represent improvement because actually it's not truth because these kinds of interventions are not frequent enough. In addition, it's a good point to make interventions, but these interventions does not have any results because the governments should follow the results and find solutions of these problems.

In fact some governments are investing in order to result those problems for example in the Citarium river located in Indonesia in the Bandung Province. The concentrations of aluminum, iron and manages of this river up to four time the recommended doses due to many agricultural industry that border this area. This river represent the irrigation of 5 % of Indonesia's rice crops and provide access to water for 9 million people. In order to result this problem the Indonesian government received 500 million dollars to rehabilitate the Area.

There is two types of water pollutions. The point sources which are direct sources such as factory and sewage sludges. This type of pollution has reduced a lot in the developed country because of the new strigent policy but not in the poor countries because they don’t have enough money to to completely treat waste and eliminate waste. There is also the poor governance, of the water, the climate change and the rapid urbanization and industrialisation and this is making the environment situation going worse.

In Asia the strong economic development has a negative impact on the environment and especially on water quality. In addition the huge population of Asia is also a major issue for the environmental well being.

The non point sources are polluants that indirectly find their way to the ocean, most of the time because of rain or ground water. This type of pollution is the result of Urban street, suburbia, homes and mainly the agriculture. But other activities has negative impacts on the water quality such as mining, road salt, the spills, the sewers because they can find their way in the ground. These activities pollutes the water in the Ocean, rivers, lake but also and mostly the ground water. Agriculture is an huge issue in the water pollution process. Fertilizers, salts, pesticides and sediments make their way until the ground water and can have an impact on the water in which they come into contact. But Asia is a huge populated region and people need food so what can we do about agriculture ? If we stop to use fertilizer and pesticides there will be less food but peoples need food, that is why it's hard to stop the water pollution. In addition the phosphate and nitrate who run into the lakes provoke a multiplication of algae. The algae grow very fast because of the fertilizers of agricultures and then block the light from reaching underwater causing massive amounts of body death. This can touch the groundwater and make the things worse.

Many sites in South Asia are contaminated with dangerously-high levels of arsenic. The long-term exposure of this amount levels of arsenic in drinking-water reduce child survival and lead to cognitive impairment. He also provoke cardiovascular disease and cancer. It's important to continue the interventions in order to improve water quality.

Human enteric pathogens and arsenic are not the only issues on drinking-water in South Asia. The industrial pollutants are also a major issue. As we said before, South Asian economies are developing a lot, but the environment is not considerate enough compared to the economy development. It's quite difficult to resolve these kinds of problems because peoples need money to live but the way they are making money is destructing the environment. The industrials wastes are a potential risk to human health. In addition the huge Asian development is occurring in the setting of weak rule of law. I think that governments must be more strict, they should find a balance between environment well being and development. Companies that generate waste have to pay huge taxes in order to reduce their contamination while reducing their profits. The other part of the difficulty in understanding the scale of the problem of industrial pollution that there are so many different chemicals involved that there is not a simple assay to assess industrial pollution.

Public-healths professionals can help governments by improving surveillance for industrial contamination and making reports in order to find solution and balance between the industrial production and the environmental well being. In this case the limits of this idea would be the corruption. But, with a most optimist view, this idea could provide successful models promoted.

To my mind, the most important things to do to preserve the environment is to improve the education of children but also awareness the population about the environment well being and the fact that we are all living on the same planet and that we have to respect our earth and preserve her for our children. In a political view, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) promoted the Integrated water Resources Management (IWRM) in 2000. IWRM is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related without affect negatively the economic growth and the social welfare in an equitable way without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. IWRM protect the environment through democratic participation in governance in order to improve the human health. The water vision and and policy frameworks has been adopted in 5 countries of southeast Asia that are Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. They integrated IWRM concept in their national laws and policies. ASEAN Water Resources (AWGWR) are also fighting against water pollution. Their strategy is to influence the different areas with medias. they teach the value for the respect and the water non pollution by the system of integration.

My name is Anthony Branger. I'm a student in ISEG Marketing and communication school in Lyon. I hope you enjoyed the article, do not hesitate to ask me questions or post a comment. I'm sorry for the grammatical errors, I'm working hard to improve my English skills ! Good bye, with love.

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Anthony Branger

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