A Survival Guide for Trench Warfare by August Clements

Aerial view Loos-Hulluch trench system July 1917 by Unknown is licensed under Creative Commons public domain

POISON GAS

Livens Projector Diagram WWI by Rcbutcher is licensed under Creative Commons public domain

Offense is the best defense, so weapons like these are extremely useful to have in trench warfare when no bullet will do the job. Poison gas comes in many forms, from chlorine to phosphine, the most notorious ("10"). One method for launching these gas tubes, the Livens projector, is shown here.

GAS MASKS

WWI Gas Mask by Luz28 is licensed under Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication

What if your enemy also has poison gas? That is where gas masks will come in. The first gas masks were crude, sometimes just being cotton balls and stifling gags, but they slowly developed into the "tube" masks, comprised of two main parts. The eyepieces allow the wearer to see, although sometimes with difficulty. The nozzle allows for outside air to come in, while chemicals inside the nozzle prevent the poison gases from entering ("10").

VACCINATIONS

Syringe Injection Needle Medical 34299 by Clker-Free-Vector-Images is licensed under Creative Commons public domain

The lowly vaccination has saved many lives since the beginning of the war. These vaccinations were first used for many servicemen and protected against the typhoid disease. It worked, and deaths from the disease were greatly reduced. The vaccination became one of the most important medical advancements during the war ("10").

SANDBAGS

British officer writing home - WWI - Western Front by the National Library of Scotland is licensed under Creative Commons public domain

What do you do when you are unable to dig deeper? Build higher! Sandbags take up many duties in the trenches. They prevent flooding, absorb shrapnel and bullets, and allow viewing through the gaps - all free of charge. A common duty among soldiers is to restock the sandbags after damage from enemy fire ("What").

CARDS

Bicycle Playing Cards 1918 by Thoth God of Knowledge is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic.

Trench warfare is almost never over in under a day. It is often filled long periods of preparation and boredom, interrupted by the occasional outburst of fighting in the no man's land. Many soldiers are driven insane by the boredom. The secret? Keep yourself busy. Letters are useful, but many card games exist to blast away that boredom ("What").

Works Cited (I couldn't get the citations to indent)

"10 Things That Could Have Saved Your Life In The Trenches." Imperial War Museums, www.iwm.org.uk/history/10-things-that-could-have- saved-your-life-in-the-trenches. Accessed 26 Mar. 2017.

"What was it like in a World One trench?" BBC Bitesize, BBC, www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z8sssbk#zwcccdm. Accessed 26 Mar. 2017.

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