Transcendentalism is the belief in the goodness of man. They believed a self reliant man could reform society and it disagreed with institutions in society. Henry David Thoreau was a leader who advocated that the people challenged the laws by not obeying them and this is known as civil disobedience. Other important people were Nathaniel Hawthorne, Walt Whitman, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Americans that were black and white spoke out against slavery and this led to the abolitionist movement. Even though the slavery ended in the North, they still accepted slavery from the South. William Lloyd, Angelina and Sarah Grimke, Frederick Douglass, and Sojourner Truth were all important people in the abolitionist movement. Harriet Tubman conducted the Underground Railroad and she helped a lot of slaves. In the South they still defended the idea of slavery even if they didn't own slaves. Antislavery made way for the next reform movement called Women's Right Movement.
Women didn't have any rights so they couldn't vote or hold office. When they get married all their property and wages went to their husbands. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton hosted a national women's rights convention in New York. The Seneca Falls Convention demanded equality for the women. New York passed the law that allowed the women to keep their property and their wages. It was also said this right wouldn't be achieved until 1920.
Dorothea dix was the Sunday school teacher.She did not like the way that the inmates were being treated.They had children with adults,and food in short supply.the inmates were locked into dark damp cells.some of the inmates were poisoned because they couldn't pay their depts.some inmates were locked up and whipped and beaten because of their behavior. After visiting the jail she when to the state legislative about the horrible condition.
Men, women, and children were abusing alcohol. This was bad because alcohol causes problems in homes, domestic violence and it causes people to have things that mental illness. The reformers linked alcohol to be a crime. In the late 1820's they had a public campaign against selling or drinking alcoho which was known as the Temperance Movement. In 1850 the marines banned selling alcohol and after that other states started to follow that same law.
Many kids did not attend school because of the cost.horace Mann was the head of the state board of education in Massachusetts. He got a nickname that was father of American public schools. He spoke to the citizens about how public schools are important. He told them that because public schools produce education. The citizens of Massachusetts had voted to pay taxes to build better schools. They can pay higher salaries for teachers and open scools to train teachers. Mann's idea spreader and other state did the same thing. Public schools started to spring up and girl were able to go to high school or college.