Reform Movements Trinity WarRen P.3

A reform movement is the kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements.

The Second Great Awakening was an example of A Reform Movement. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800 and, after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement.
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europeand the Americas, abolitionism is a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain, usually known as Emperor Charles V, following the example of Louis X of France who abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315, passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, and so was not enforced. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church, taking up a plea by Lourenco da Silva de Mendouca, officially condemned the slave trade, which was affirmed vehemently by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839.
Abolitionists were people (especially prior to the Civil War) who advocated or supported the abolition of slavery in the U.S. Also a person who favors the abolition of any law or practice deemed harmful to society: the abolitionists who are opposed to capital punishment. For example, people like Henry Bibb, Angeline Grimke, Sarah Grimke, Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd, and even Sojourner Truth were amazing, outstanding abolitionist.
Women's suffrage was when the right of women to vote in elections were restricted. Limited voting rights were gained by women in Finland, Iceland, Sweden and some Australian colonies and western U.S. states in the late 19th century.[1] National and international organizations formed to coordinate efforts to gain voting rights, especially the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (founded in 1904, Berlin, Germany), and also worked for equal civil rights for women.[2]
In 1881, the Isle of Man gave women who owned property the right to vote. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealand, granted women the right to vote. The colony of South Australia, did the same in 1894 and women were able to vote in the next election, which was held in 1895.
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration. Prisons have only been used as the primary punishment for criminal acts in the last few centuries. Far more common earlier were various types of corporal punishment, public humiliation, penal bondage, and banishment for more severe offences, as well as capital punishment.
Dorothea Lynde Dix was an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. Dorothea was an author, teacher and reformer. Her efforts on behalf of the mentally ill and prisoners helped create dozens of new institutions across the United States and in Europe and changed people's perceptions of these populations.
The temperance movement began in the early 19th century. Before this, although there were pieces published against drunkenness and excess, total abstinence from alcohol was very rarely advocated or practiced. There was also a concentration on hard spirits rather than on abstinence from alcohol and on moral reform rather than legal measures against alcohol.
Temperance movements typically criticize excessive alcohol consumption, promote complete abstinence (teetotalism), or use its political influence to press the government to enact alcohol laws to regulate the availability of alcohol or even its complete prohibition. The goal of early leaders of the temperance movement—conservative clergy and gentlemen of means—was to win people over to the idea of temperate use of alcohol. But as the movement gained momentum, the goal shifted first to voluntary abstinence, and finally to prohibition of the manufacture and sale of ardent spirits.
Other places, like Georgia, began closing public schools after 1800, and it was illegal almost everywhere to educate a slave. A free, public education was still out of reach for most American children. The Educational Reform Movement began to aspire in the 19th century. The one constant for all forms of education reform includes the idea that small changes in education will have large social returns in citizen health, wealth and well-being. For example, a stated motivation has been to reduce cost to students and society. From ancient times until the 1800s, one goal was to reduce the expense of a classical education. Ideally, classical education is undertaken with a highly educated full-time ($$$$$) personal tutor. Before, historically this was available only to the most wealthy. Encyclopedias, public libraries and grammar schools are examples of innovations intended to lower the cost of a classical education.
Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education. Historically, reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed. In the United States, education reform acknowledges and encourages public education as the primary source of K-12 education for American youth.

Credits:

Created with images by Boston Public Library - "The man is not bought! He is still in the slave pen in the courthouse!" • Archives New Zealand - "Women's Suffrage Petition 1893" • juliejordanscott - "suffragettes carrying arrows to proudly display prison status" • Steve Snodgrass - "Cellblock"

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